- Partnerships between academic institutions and companies in nanotechnology research and development, benefits and difficulties of these partnerships
- Risks and benefits posed by nanotechnology and nanomaterials to agriculture.
Artistic representations of nanotechnology
- Fictional images of nanotechnology and the ethical implications of their use in popular media and scientific journals.
Best practices and guidelines
- A best practice is a technique or methodology that, through experience and research, has proven to reliably lead to a desired result. A commitment to using the best practices in any field is a commitment to using all the knowledge and technology at one's disposal to ensure success. Includes scholarly articles and reports on the development of best practices, voluntary standards, and guidelines for research facilities, industry, health care, etc.
Best practices and guidelines – Industrial
- Development, adoption, and examples of best practices, voluntary standards, and guidelines for manufacturers who produce or use nanomaterials.
- Bioethics is a discipline dealing with ethical questions that arise as result of advances in medicine and biology. Includes ethical questions of the use of nanotechnology and nanoparticles in medicine and biomedical engineering.
Code of ethics
- Examples and discussion about the development of individual codes of ethics for the use of nanotechnology by individual institutions, and a universal code of ethics for nanotechnology.
- The benefits and risks of the use of nanomaterials in consumer products such as cosmetics, home appliances, cleaning products, etc.
Cost-benefit analysis is technique used in economic appraisal that takes into account the estimated cost to be incurred by a proposed investment or decision, and the economic benefits. When used to evaluate environmental, health, and safety regulations, it identifies, puts a value on, and compares the proposal’s expected costs versus the expected benefits. Scholarly articles discussing and critiquing the use of cost-benefit analysis to assess the potential environmental and health risks related to nanotechnology. See also Precautionary principle, Risk assessment
Developing nations and nanotechnology
- The benefits, opportunities, and potential ethical issues of developing nations and nanotechnology development. This includes:
- development of a “nano-divide” where developed countries gain the benefits of nanotechnology while developing nations fail to profit,
- potential uses of nanotechnology for water treatment, agricultural productivity, improved health care, energy distribution,
- potential of nanotechnology research and development to stimulate developing nations’ economies.
- Strategies and examples of efforts to educate scientists, business people, and the general public about the societal and ethical implications of nanotechnology. Includes reports from conferences and workshops, class syllabi, scholarly articles, and media coverage.
Emerging technologies - Historical parallels
- Comparisons of the future of nanotechnology development to other “disruptive” emerging technologies, such as genetically engineered organisms (GMOs) and nuclear energy. Scholarly articles examine the history of these technologies, and draw lessons on how to promote public engagement, public support for nanotechnology research and development, and to develop strategies for minimizing potential risks.
- Potential environmental benefits and risks related to the use of nanomaterials in consumer products, electronics, manufacturing processes, medical use, etc. This includes environmental risks posed through the entire nanoparticle lifecycle from production to disposal.
- Scholarly discussion on nanotechnology and ethics. The validity of the discipline of “nanoethics,” identifying the ethical implications of nanotechnology, what philosophers, social scientists, and scholars of science and technology studies can learn from studying the development of nanotechnology, etc.
- Safety aspects and questions about the use of nanomaterials in food, packaging, and the manufacturing process.
Funding for research
- Funding opportunities for research on the ethical and societal implications of nanotechnology and nanomaterials, scholarly and popular media articles on levels of funding, testimonies and statements to governmental bodies and agencies.
- Scholarly and popular media articles, reports, conference proceedings, regulatory policies, and editorials about the potential health benefits and risks of nanotechnology and nanoparticles.
Health aspects - research
- Scholarly articles on research results and articles discussing studies of various nanoparticles and their affect on biological systems.
- Reports and scholarly articles about the ethics of enhancing human performance through the use of nanotechnology, information technology, and biotechnology.
Law and legislation
- Laws or acts passed to regulate some aspect of nanotechnology, reviews of how existing legislation can be used (for example, applying the Clean Water Act to regulate nanotechnology) and scholarly articles and reports on designing a regulatory framework for nanotechnology research and development.
Law and legislation – United States
- Distinct laws or acts passed to regulate some aspect of nanotechnology in the United States
Law and legislation – United States – California – City of Berkeley
- Distinct laws or acts passed to regulate some aspect of nanotechnology in Berkeley, California
- Popular media articles on nanotechnology, scholarly articles and studies on how media outlets portray nanotechnology research and development. See also:Media Coverage-Studies, Media frames.
- National and international studies done on how nanotechnology is covered in popular press.
- Media frames refer to how an article discusses an issue or event. For example, many popular media articles about nanotechnology portray it as being the next great scientific revolution that may help find a cure for cancer or alternately, as having the potential to cause severe environmental and health problems if it is not properly regulated. As Robert Entman, a professor of media and public affairs at George Washington University describes it, a media frame “selects some aspects of a perceived reality and makes them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, casual interpretation, moral evaluation, and /or treatment recommendation for the item described.” Includes scholarly articles and studies of the media frames used in covering nanotechnology.
- Reports and scholarly articles discussing the ethical implications of the convergence of biotechnology and nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology policy and development
- Scholarly articles, government reports, and critiques of nanotechnology policy and development both nationally and internationally. Covers how governments are addressing the societal and ethical implications of nanotech R&D. Use this term to retrieve all articles on nanotechnology development, or select below terms for information about an individual topic, region or country.
Nanotechnology policy and development – Asia Pacific:
Nanotechnology policy and development – Australia:
Nanotechnology policy and development – Canada:
Nanotechnology policy and development – Europe:
Nanotechnology policy and development – Latin America:
Nanotechnology policy and development – Trade Regulation
Nanotechnology policy and development –United Kingdom
Nanotechnology policy and development –United States
- “The precautionary principle is a framework for thinking that provides foresight in situations characterized by uncertainty, ignorance, and ambiguity and where there are potentially large pros and cons for both regulatory action and inaction.”
Though there are many formulations of the precautionary principle, the most common one was adopted as Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration from the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. “In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States according to their capabilities. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing const-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.” (Mitchem, 1474) Database includes scholarly articles defining and critiquing the precautionary principle in general, and its use in the instance of nanotechnology. See also cost benefit analysis,risk assessment.
Privacy and surveillance
- Scholarly articles discussing the potential impact of nanotechnology research and development on individual privacy, and the ethical concerns this type of technology raises.
- Articles, surveys, studies, and examples of efforts of public engagement by governments, academic institutions, and industry.
- Articles, surveys, and studies on public attitudes towards nanotechnology and how these attitudes are formed.
- Articles, surveys and studies measuring the level of trust members of the public have in regard to government entities and industry to oversee the safe and responsible development of nanotechnology.
Public understanding of science
- Scholarly articles, surveys, and studies on how members of the public assimilate information about scientific discoveries, especially nanotechnology.
- the process of measuring and assessing risk, and developing strategies to manage it. Scholarly articles, conference proceedings, and reports identifying gaps in knowledge about the possible environmental health and safety risks of nanotechnology and discussing possible assessment policies and strategies to deal with these risks.
- strategies developed to manage risks posed by nanotechnology and nano-material research and development. Includes scholarly articles on how to formulate risk management strategies, and examples of risk management strategies for industrial institutions.
Safety scares and incidents
- Examples of instances in which nanomaterials have caused, or have thought to have caused, an environmental, health or safety risk. For example, a cleaning product called “Magic Nano” caused many cases of severe respiratory problems in Germany. Later the product was discovered not to contain any nanoparticles, but some scholars and critics saw this incident as an example of why more research needs to be done on the possible health risks of nanomaterials.
- Scholarly articles, conference proceedings, reports, and opinion pieces on the societal implications of nanotechnology research and development.
Societal implications research sources
- databases and other information resources on environmental and health aspects and the societal implications of nanotechnology and nanomaterials.
Standards and standardization
- Efforts to develop a standard nomenclature, terminology, classification, basic metrology, and characterization of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Includes voluntary and mandatory standards that seek to cover the entire life cycle of nanomaterials in a variety of settings such as research labs, manufacturing, and in consumer products. Scholarly articles, reports, and conference proceedings from standard-setting institutions such as the American National Standards Institute and the International Standards Organization.
- Economic growth policies that limit negative impact on the environment so economic development is sustainable over the long term. Scholarly articles that discuss the development of national and international policies to promote the sustainable development of nanotechnology.
- evaluating individual technologies from a societal perspective. Scholarly articles examining nanotechnology and other emerging technologies’ social impact.
- Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals or physical agents on living organisms. Scholarly and popular media articles on the possible toxicology of some types of nanoparticles, summary of studies done.
- Safe handling of nanomaterials in the workplace, worker exposure to nano-materials.
- Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition. 1989
- A Dictionary of Business and Management. Ed. Jonathan Law. Oxford University Press, 2006. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. University of Illinois - Urbana Champaign. 10 April 2007
- Entman, Robert (1993) “Framing: toward clarification of a fractured paradigm”, Journal of Communication 43(4), pp. 52
- Mitcham, Carl. Encyclopedia of Science, Technology and Ethics Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference, 2005. p. 1475
- Collins Dictionary of Economics. 2006. Xreferplus. 11 April 2007.
- Toxicology Tutor I : Basic Principles Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program of the National Library of Medicine.