Cochlear Implantation, Enhancements, Transhumanism and Posthumanism: Some Human Questions

TitleCochlear Implantation, Enhancements, Transhumanism and Posthumanism: Some Human Questions
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsLee, J
JournalScience & Engineering Ethics
Volume22
Issue1
Pagination67-92
Date Published2016
Publication Languageeng
ISBN Number13533452
KeywordsBeing , BIOENGINEERING , Biomedical , brain-computer , COCHLEAR , DEAF , Enhancements , Neurosciences , POSTHUMANISM , TRANSHUMANISM
AbstractBiomedical engineering technologies such as brain-machine interfaces and neuroprosthetics are advancements which assist human beings in varied ways. There are exciting yet speculative visions of how the neurosciences and bioengineering may influence human nature. However, these could be preparing a possible pathway towards an enhanced and even posthuman future. This article seeks to investigate several ethical themes and wider questions of enhancement, transhumanism and posthumanism. Four themes of interest are: autonomy, identity, futures, and community. Three larger questions can be asked: will everyone be enhanced? Will we be 'human' if we are not, one day, transhuman? Should we be enhanced or not? The article proceeds by concentrating on a widespread and sometimes controversial application: the cochlear implant, an auditory prosthesis implanted into Deaf patients. Cochlear implantation and its reception in both the deaf and hearing communities have a distinctive moral discourse, which can offer surprising insights. The paper begins with several points about the enhancement of human beings, transhumanism's reach beyond the human, and posthuman aspirations. Next it focuses on cochlear implants on two sides. Firstly, a shorter consideration of what technologies may do to humans in a transhumanist world. Secondly, a deeper analysis of cochlear implantation's unique socio-political movement, its ethical explanations and cultural experiences linked with pediatric cochlear implantation-and how those wary of being thrust towards posthumanism could marshal such ideas by analogy. As transhumanism approaches, the issues and questions merit continuing intense analysis.
NotesLee, Joseph 1; Email Address: joseph.lee@flinders.edu.au; Affiliation: 1: Flinders University, GPO Box 2100 Adelaide 5001 Australia; Source Info: Feb2016, Vol. 22 Issue 1, p67; Subject Term: COCHLEAR implants; Subject Term: TRANSHUMANISM; Subject Term: POSTHUMANISM; Subject Term: BIOMEDICAL engineering; Subject Term: BRAIN-computer interfaces; Subject Term: NEUROSCIENCES; Subject Term: BIOENGINEERING; Author-Supplied Keyword: Being human; Author-Supplied Keyword: Cochlear implantation; Author-Supplied Keyword: Deaf culture; Author-Supplied Keyword: Enhancements; Author-Supplied Keyword: Posthumanism; Author-Supplied Keyword: Transhumanism; Number of Pages: 26p; Document Type: Article
DOI10.1007/s11948-015-9640-6

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