An Ethical Issue Scale for Community Pharmacy Setting (EISP): Development and Validation

TitleAn Ethical Issue Scale for Community Pharmacy Setting (EISP): Development and Validation
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsCrnjanski, T, Krajnovic, D, Tadic, I, Stojkov, S, Savic, M
JournalScience & Engineering Ethics
Date Published2016
Publication Languageeng
ISBN Number13533452
KeywordsCommunity , ethical , ethics , Medical , Pharmaceutical , PHARMACISTS , PHARMACOLOGY , SOCIAL , Survey , validation
AbstractMany problems that arise when providing pharmacy services may contain some ethical components and the aims of this study were to develop and validate a scale that could assess difficulties of ethical issues, as well as the frequency of those occurrences in everyday practice of community pharmacists. Development and validation of the scale was conducted in three phases: (1) generating items for the initial survey instrument after qualitative analysis; (2) defining the design and format of the instrument; (3) validation of the instrument. The constructed Ethical Issue scale for community pharmacy setting has two parts containing the same 16 items for assessing the difficulty and frequency thereof. The results of the 171 completely filled out scales were analyzed (response rate 74.89 %). The Cronbach's α value of the part of the instrument that examines difficulties of the ethical situations was 0.83 and for the part of the instrument that examined frequency of the ethical situations was 0.84. Test-retest reliability for both parts of the instrument was satisfactory with all Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values above 0.6, (for the part that examines severity ICC = 0.809, for the part that examines frequency ICC = 0.929). The 16-item scale, as a self assessment tool, demonstrated a high degree of content, criterion, and construct validity and test-retest reliability. The results support its use as a research tool to asses difficulty and frequency of ethical issues in community pharmacy setting. The validated scale needs to be further employed on a larger sample of pharmacists.
NotesCrnjanski, Tatjana 1; Email Address: Krajnovic, Dusanka Tadic, Ivana 2 Stojkov, Svetlana 1 Savic, Mirko 3; Affiliation: 1: Subotica Pharmacy, Matije Gupca 26 24000 Subotica Serbia 2: Department of Social Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Legislation, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 450 11221 Belgrade Serbia 3: Department of Business Informatics and Quantitative Methods, Faculty of Economics in Subotica, University of Novi Sad, Segedinski Put 9-11 24000 Subotica Serbia; Source Info: Apr2016, Vol. 22 Issue 2, p497; Subject Term: PHARMACISTS; Subject Term: PHARMACEUTICAL policy; Subject Term: ETHICS; Subject Term: PHARMACOLOGY; Subject Term: MEDICAL personnel; Author-Supplied Keyword: Community pharmacy; Author-Supplied Keyword: Ethical issues; Author-Supplied Keyword: Ethics; Author-Supplied Keyword: Social pharmacy; Author-Supplied Keyword: Survey instrument; Author-Supplied Keyword: Validation; NAICS/Industry Codes: 325410 Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing; NAICS/Industry Codes: 414510 Pharmaceuticals and pharmacy supplies merchant wholesalers; NAICS/Industry Codes: 424210 Drugs and Druggists' Sundries Merchant Wholesalers; NAICS/Industry Codes: 446110 Pharmacies and Drug Stores; Number of Pages: 12p; Document Type: Article