Leaks in the pipeline: separating demographic inertia from ongoing gender differences in academia

TitleLeaks in the pipeline: separating demographic inertia from ongoing gender differences in academia
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsK, SAllison, E, SDaniel
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Date Published2012
Publication Languageeng
ISBN Number09628452
KeywordsAcademic , computer , DEMOGRAPHIC , EDUCATORS , gender , INERTIA , National , United , Women
Abstract The authors constructed a simple model of the academic career that can be used to identify general trends, and separate the demographic effects of historical differences from ongoing biological or cultural gender differences, and  apply the model to data on academics collected by the National Science Foundation (USA) over the past three decades, across all of science and engineering, and within six disciplines (agricultural and biological sciences, engineering, mathematics and computer sciences, physical sciences, psychology, and social sciences). We show that the hiring and retention of women in academia have been affected by both demographic inertia and gender differences, but that the relative influence of gender differences appears to be dwindling for most disciplines and career transitions. Our model enables us to identify the two key non-structural bottlenecks restricting female participation in academia: choice of undergraduate major and application to faculty positions. These transitions are those in greatest need of detailed study and policy development. 
NotesAllison K., Shaw 1; Email Address: akshaw@princeton.edu Daniel E., Stanton 1,2; Email Address: daniel.stanton@anu.edu.au; Affiliation: 1: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA 2: Division of Plant Sciences, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Acton, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia; Source Info: 9/22/2012, Vol. 279 Issue 1743, p3736; Subject Term: DEMOGRAPHIC surveys; Subject Term: INERTIA (Mechanics); Subject Term: GENDER differences (Psychology); Subject Term: EDUCATORS; Subject Term: COMPUTER science; Subject Term: UNITED States; Author-Supplied Keyword: academic hiring; Author-Supplied Keyword: gender bias; Author-Supplied Keyword: women in science; Company/Entity: NATIONAL Science Foundation (U.S.); NAICS/Industry Codes: 541710 Research and development in the physical, engineering and life sciences; NAICS/Industry Codes: 541712 Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences (except Biotechnology); Number of Pages: 6p; Document Type: Article; Full Text Word Count: 309