Employee/Employer Relationships

Code of Ethics (2003)

http://www.ache.org/
http://www.ache.org/abt_ache/code.cfm
Date Approved: 
November 10, 2003

Disclaimer: Please note the codes in our collection might not necessarily be the most recent versions. Please contact the individual organizations or their websites to verify if a more recent or updated code of ethics is available. CSEP does not hold copyright on any of the codes of ethics in our collection. Any permission to use the codes must be sought from the individual organizations directly.

Code of Ethics

Preface

 

The Code of Ethics is administered by the Ethics Committee, which is appointed by the Board of Governors upon nomination by the Chairman. It is composed of at least nine Fellows of the College, each of whom serves a three-year term on a staggered basis, with three members retiring each year.

 

The Ethics Committee shall:

  • Review and evaluate annually the Code of Ethics, and make any necessary recommendations for updating the Code. 
  • Review and recommend action to the Board of Governors on allegations brought forth regarding breaches of the Code of Ethics. 
  • Develop ethical policy statements to serve as guidelines of ethical conduct for healthcare executives and their professional relationships. 
  • Prepare an annual report of observations, accomplishments, and recommendations to the Board of governors, and such other periodic reports as required. 

The Ethics Committee invokes the Code of Ethics under authority of the ACHE Bylaws, Article II, Membership, Section 6, Resignation and Termination of Membership; Transfer to Inactive Status, subsection (b), as follows:

 

Membership may be terminated or rendered inactive by action of the Board of Governors as a result of violation of the Code of Ethics; nonconformity with the Bylaws or Regulations Governing Admission, Advancement, Recertification, and Reappointment; conviction of a felony; or conviction of a crime of moral turpitude or a crime relating to the healthcare management profession. No such termination of membership or imposition of inactive status shall be effected without affording a reasonable opportunity for the member to consider the charges and to appear in his or her own defense before the Board of Governors or its designated hearing committee, as outlined in the "Grievance Procedure," Appendix I of the College's Code of Ethics.

 

Preamble

 

The purpose of the Code of Ethics of the American College of Healthcare Executives is to serve as a guide to conduct for members. It contains standards of ethical behavior for healthcare executives in their professional relationships. These relationships include members of the healthcare executive's organization and other organizations. Also included are patients or others served, colleagues, the community and society as a whole. The Code of Ethics also incorporates standards of ethical behavior governing personal behavior, particularly when that conduct directly relates to the role and identity of the healthcare executive.

 

The fundamental objectives of the healthcare management profession are to enhance overall quality of life, dignity and well-being of every individual needing healthcare services; and to create a more equitable, accessible, effective and efficient healthcare system.

 

Healthcare executives have an obligation to act in ways that will merit the trust, confidence and respect of healthcare professionals and the general public. Therefore, healthcare executives should lead lives that embody an exemplary system of values and ethics.

 

In fulfilling their commitments and obligations to patients or others served, healthcare executives function as moral advocates. Since every management decision affects the health and well-being of both individuals and communities, healthcare executives must carefully evaluate the possible outcomes of their decisions. In organizations that deliver healthcare services, they must work to safeguard and foster the rights, interests and prerogatives of patients or others served. The role of moral advocate requires that healthcare executives speak out and take actions necessary to promote such rights, interests and prerogatives if they are threatened.

 

I. The Healthcare Executive's Responsibilities to the Profession of Healthcare Management The healthcare executive shall:

  1. Uphold the values, ethics and mission of the healthcare management profession; 
  2. Conduct all personal and professional activities with honesty, integrity, respect, fairness and good faith in a manner that will reflect well upon the profession; 
  3. Comply with all laws pertaining to healthcare management in the jurisdictions in which the healthcare executive is located, or conducts professional activities; 
  4. Maintain competence and proficiency in healthcare management by implementing a personal program of assessment and continuing professional education; 
  5. Avoid the exploitation of professional relationships for personal gain; 
  6. Use this Code to further the interests of the profession and not for selfish reasons; 
  7. Respect professional confidences; 
  8. Enhance the dignity and image of the healthcare management profession through positive public information programs; and 
  9. Refrain from participating in any activity that demeans the credibility and dignity of the healthcare management profession. 

 

II. The Healthcare Executive's Responsibilities to Patients or Others Served, to the Organization and to Employees

 

A. Responsibilities to Patients or Others Served

 

The healthcare executive shall, within the scope of his or her authority:

  1. Work to ensure the existence of a process to evaluate the quality of care or service rendered; 
  2. Avoid practicing or facilitating discrimination and institute safeguards to prevent discriminatory organizational practices; 
  3. Work to ensure the existence of a process that will advise patients or others served of the rights, opportunities, responsibilities and risks regarding available healthcare services; 
  4. Work to provide a process that ensures the autonomy and self-determination of patients or others served; and 
  5. Work to ensure the existence of procedures that will safe-guard the confidentiality and privacy of patients or others served.

 

 B. Responsibilities to the Organization

 

The healthcare executive shall, within the scope of his or her authority:

  1. Provide healthcare services consistent with available resources and work to ensure the existence of a resource allocation process that considers ethical ramifications; 
  2. Conduct both competitive and cooperative activities in ways that improve community healthcare services; 
  3. Lead the organization in the use and improvement of standards of management and sound business practices; 
  4. Respect the customs and practices of patients or others served, consistent with the organization's philosophy; and 
  5. Be truthful in all forms of professional and organizational communication, and avoid disseminating information that is false, misleading, or deceptive. 

 

C. Responsibilities to Employees

 

Healthcare executives have an ethical and professional obligation to employees of the organizations they manage that encompass but are not limited to:

  1. Working to create a working environment conducive for underscoring employee ethical conduct and behavior. 
  2. Working to ensure that individuals may freely express ethical concerns and providing mechanisms for discussing and addressing such concerns. 
  3. Working to ensure a working environment that is free from harassment, sexual and other; coercion of any kind, especially to perform illegal or unethical acts; and discrimination on the basis of race, creed, color, sex, ethnic origin, age or disability. 
  4. Working to ensure a working environment that is conducive to proper utilization of employees' skills and abilities. 
  5. Paying particular attention to the employee's work environment and job safety. 
  6. Working to establish appropriate grievance and appeals mechanisms. 

 

III. Conflicts of Interest

 

A conflict of interest may be only a matter of degree, but exists when the healthcare executive:

  1. Acts to benefit directly or indirectly by using authority or inside information, or allows a friend, relative or associate to benefit from such authority or information. 
  2. Uses authority or information to make a decision to intentionally affect the organization in an adverse manner. The healthcare executive shall: 
    1. Conduct all personal and professional relationships in such a way that all those affected are assured that management decisions are made in the best interests of the organization and the individuals served by it; 
    2. Disclose to the appropriate authority any direct or indirect financial or personal interests that pose potential or actual conflicts of interest; 
    3. Accept no gifts or benefits offered with the express or implied expectation of influencing a management decision; and 
    4. Inform the appropriate authority and other involved parties of potential or actual conflicts of interest related to appointments or elections to boards or committees inside or outside the healthcare executive's organization. 

IV. The Healthcare Executive's Responsibilities to Community and Society

 

The healthcare executive shall:

  1. Work to identify and meet the healthcare needs of the community; 
  2. Work to ensure that all people have reasonable access to healthcare services;
  3.  Participate in public dialogue on healthcare policy issues and advocate solutions that will improve health status and promote quality healthcare; 
  4. Consider the short-term and long-term impact of management decisions on both the community and on society; and 
  5. Provide prospective consumers with adequate and accurate information, enabling them to make enlightened judgments and decisions regarding services. 

 

V. The Healthcare Executive's Responsibility to Report Violations of the Code

 

A member of the College who has reasonable grounds to believe that another member has violated this Code has a duty to communicate such facts to the Ethics Committee.

 

Appendix I

 

American College of Healthcare Executives Grievance Procedure

  1. In order to be processed by the College, a complaint must be filed in writing to the Ethics Committee of the College within three years of the date of discovery of the alleged violation; and the Committee has the responsibility to look into incidents brought to its attention regardless of the informality of the information, provided the information can be documented or supported or may be a matter of public record. The three-year period within which a complaint must be filed shall temporarily cease to run during intervals when the accused member is in inactive status, or when the accused member resigns from the College. 
  2. The Committee chairman initially will determine whether the complaint falls within the purview of the Ethics Committee and whether immediate investigation is necessary. However, all letters of complaint that are filed with the Ethics Committee will appear on the agenda of the next committee meeting. The Ethics Committee shall have the final discretion to determine whether a complaint falls within the purview of the Ethics Committee. 
  3. If a grievance proceeding is initiated by the Ethics Committee: 
    1. Specifics of the complaint will be sent to the respondent by certified mail. In such mailing, committee staff will inform the respondent that the grievance proceeding has been initiated, and that the respondent may respond directly to the Ethics Committee; the respondent also will be asked to cooperate with the Regent investigating the complaint. 
    2. The Ethics Committee shall refer the matter to the appropriate Regent who is deemed best able to investigate the alleged infraction. The Regent shall make inquiry into the matter, and in the process the respondent shall be given an opportunity to be heard. Upon completion of the inquiry, the Regent shall present a complete report and recommended disposition of the matter in writing to the Ethics Committee. Absent unusual circumstances, the Regent is expected to complete his or her report and recommended disposition, and provide them to the Committee, within 60 days. 
    3. Upon the Committee's receipt of the Regent's report and recommended disposition, the Committee shall review them and make its written recommendation to the Board of Governors as to what action shall be taken and the reason or reasons therefore. A copy of the Committee's recommended decision along with the Regent's report and recommended disposition to the Board will be mailed to the respondent by certified mail. In such mailing, the respondent will be notified that within 30 days after his or her receipt of the Ethics Committee's recommended decision, the respondent may file a written appeal of the recommended decision with the Board of Governors. 
  4. Any written appeal submitted by the respondent must be received by the Board of Governors within 30 days after the recommended decision of the Ethics Committee is received by the respondent. The Board of Governors shall not take action on the Ethics Committee's recommended decision until the 30-day appeal period has elapsed. If no appeal to the Board of Governors is filed in a timely fashion, the Board shall review the recommended decision and determine action to be taken. 
  5. If an appeal to the Board of Governors is timely filed, the College Chairman shall appoint an ad hoc committee consisting of three Fellows to hear the matter. At least 30 days' notice of the formation of this committee, and of the hearing date, time and place, with an opportunity for representation, shall be mailed to the respondent. Reasonable requests for postponement shall be given consideration. 
  6. This ad hoc committee shall give the respondent adequate opportunity to present his or her case at the hearing, including the opportunity to submit a written statement and other documents deemed relevant by the respondent, and to be represented if so desired. Within a reasonable period of time following the hearing, the ad hoc committee shall write a detailed report with recommendations to the Board of Governors. 
  7. The Board of Governors shall decide what action to take after reviewing the report of the ad hoc committee. The Board shall provide the respondent with a copy of its decision. The decision of the Board of Governors shall be final. The Board of Governors shall have the authority to accept or reject any of the findings or recommended decisions of the Regent, the Ethics Committee or the ad hoc committee, and to order whatever level of discipline it feels is justified. 
  8. At each level of the grievance proceeding, the Board of Governors shall have the sole discretion to notify or contact the complainant relating to the grievance proceeding; provided, however, that the complainant shall be notified as to whether the complaint was reviewed by the Ethics Committee and whether the Ethics Committee or the Board of Governors has taken final action with respect to the complaint. 
  9. No individual shall serve on the ad hoc committee described above, or otherwise participate in these grievance proceedings on behalf of the College, if he or she is in direct economic competition with the respondent or otherwise has a financial conflict of interest in the matter, unless such conflict is disclosed to and waived in writing by the respondent. 
  10. All information obtained, reviewed, discussed and otherwise used or developed in a grievance proceeding that is not otherwise publicly known, publicly available, or part of the public domain is considered to be privileged and strictly confidential information of the College, and is not to be disclosed to anyone outside of the grievance proceeding except as determined by the Board of Governors or as required by law; provided, however, that an individual's membership status is not confidential and may be made available to the public upon request. 

 

Appendix II Ethics Committee Action

 

Once the grievance proceeding has been initiated, the Ethics Committee may take any of the following actions based upon its findings:

  1. Determine the grievance complaint to be invalid.
  2.  Dismiss the grievance complaint. 
  3. Recommend censure. 
  4. Recommend transfer to inactive status for a specified minimum period of time. 
  5. Recommend expulsion.

An Interfaith Declaration : A Code of Ethics on International Business for Christians, Muslims, and Jews (1994)

Organization: 
http://institute.jesdialogue.org/
Source: 
Interfaith Declaration
http://institute.jesdialogue.org/fileadmin/bizcourse/INTERFAITHDECLARATION.pdf
Date Approved: 
1994

Disclaimer: Please note the codes in our collection might not necessarily be the most recent versions. Please contact the individual organizations or their websites to verify if a more recent or updated code of ethics is available. CSEP does not hold copyright on any of the codes of ethics in our collection. Any permission to use the codes must be sought from the individual organizations directly.

An Interfaith Declaration : A Code of Ethics on International Business for Christians, Muslims, and Jews

SETTING

 

The idea for a high level dialogue between Muslims and Christians, which resulted in the issuing of the Declaration, arose from a State Visit by the British Royal Family to Jordan in March 1984. One theme of their discussion there was to consider what might be done to counteract the tendency in their respective countries for the media and others to concentrate on the excesses of extremism-not least, religious extremism. They felt that there was a need to encourage a refocusing on the values held in common by those who look to religion to guide their behavior. It was agreed that Jewish thought and experience had a relevant contribution to make to the subject and senior representatives were invited to the discussions.

 

After some preliminary discussions it was agreed that the basis for a dialogue would be the conviction that insights of the Scriptures and practice of Jews, Christians and Muslims had an important contribution to make to any discussions on values.

 

After exploring a number of topics which might produce worthwhile outcomes, the representatives of each faith selected business, behavior of ethics as a starting point. They were interested particularly in the implications of international business activity, in the form of trade and investment, for traditional business practices which were often quite different in countries with different religious traditions.

 

HRH Duke of Edinburgh, HRH Crown Prince El Hassan of Jordan and Sir Evelyn de Rothschild, invited a group of distinguished Jewish, Christian and Muslim thinkers and business leaders to see whether they could agree on some principles which might serve as guidelines for international business behavior. The group met four times and between meetings exchanged papers exploring in some depth the different approaches to behavioral problems arising in business relationships and the basis for their resolution.

 

The participants at the consultations included royalty, theologians, businessmen, philosophers, bankers, and clerics. What they were attempting to discover was what values the three monotheistic faiths had in common concerning economic activity. In other words, what were the shared moral, ethical and spiritual values inherent in the Abrahamic tradition that are relevant in a business context?

 

The delegates were asked to express their ideas about the cross-cultural problems they discerned with current business behavior. They explained their different approaches to production, distribution, employment, money, materialism, spirituality, and wealth creation. The contributions were translated and circulated to participants. The Gulf War interrupted the process but it was considered worthwhile reconvening in 1992.

 

KEY CONCEPTS

 

The early discussions were somewhat laborious as many misconceptions and misrepresentations about both religion and business had to be addressed before there was any consensus about the variety of issues covered by the term business ethics.

 

The leaders of the consultations then asked the author to look at the material and see whether there was a basis for an agreement. Using techniques of content analysis, four key concepts that recur in the two Testaments of the Bible and the Qur’an in respect to economic transactions were distilled. These were: Justice, Mutual Respect, Stewardship and Honesty. A set of statements concerning the interaction of business with the community was then drawn up. The discussions were concluded at a meeting held in Amman, Jordan in Oct. 1993, with the acceptance of a set of guidelines in an Interfaith Declaration reflecting the participants’ shared concerns for the four value concepts set out above as applied to international business transactions.

 

The meetings of the group and the resultant Declaration indicate that whatever their particular insight into Truth may be-and it is acknowledged that there are differences-they nevertheless had a common heritage with a high degree of shared values. They also re-affirmed that in their opinion, there was a common moral basis derived from the Scriptures. For a number of reasons they felt it was well worthwhile trying to apply these to contemporary international business issues.

 

One of the reasons was that there was general agreement that the growth in material prosperity in the industrial world was generating an alternative value system which they believe to be detrimental to the wholesome development of human beings: selfishness and dishonesty are tending to supplant generosity and integrity. They noted that there is evidence that morality and ethical standards are declining in their respective societies, as exemplified by the wide reporting of dishonest and corrupt practices. Part of the problem they thought was an ambivalence concerning what is considered right and wrong, and economic relationships had not escaped this influence. It was decided that a reiteration of shared ethical values in the form of a Declaration would make a contribution to sustaining and improving the standards of international business behavior.

 

It was realized that the application of these principles may be more difficult to apply in some countries than in others because of the different degree of influence that religion has within a given society. Muslims and to a lesser extent Jews generally operate within a social atmosphere that is conducive to the influence of their religious precepts being heeded in their societies. It is normal for moral and ethical concerns to be discussed within a religious ethos.

 

With some exceptions, Christians are more dependent upon personal convictions, which often have to be stated in a secular social atmosphere that has little sympathy with them. While the influence of Islamic institutions is more open and obvious, and that of Judaism still strong, the influence of Christianity tends to be personal, in spite of the publication of some pertinent encyclicals from the Vatican addressed to the Roman Catholic Church and secular institutions.

 

All participants agreed that, in the final analysis, the application of ethical principles is a matter of person judgement rather than rules; codes can only set standards. It follows that the Declaration (or indeed any code of ethics) is not a substitute for corporate or individual morality; it is a set of guidelines for good practice. In isolation it will make little real difference; if used as part of a corporate program to raise ethical awareness and to be used as the basis of cross-cultural business, it is likely to have a lasting effect both by setting norms and by being used as a guide to best practice.

 

METHOD

 

The code drew on the experience of group members, a number of existing guidelines and codes, and conduct which has been adopted by international organizations such as the International Chamber of Commerce. Individual company codes of ethics, too, were used where appropriate.

 

The distinction between three categories of ethical issues are recognized in the code.

 

  •  The morality of the economic system in which business activity takes place. 
  •  The policies and strategies of organizations which engage in business. 
  •  The behavior of individual employees in the context of their work.

 

 

 It was also noted that while some ethical issues affect all types of industrial and commercial activity, there are others which are distinctive to a particular sector. The outstanding example is that of the provision of financial services. Practices in the banking sector differ significantly in different countries and cultures and have specific characteristics which can involve moral choice. For instance, it was accepted that it is especially important to Muslims that money is not treated merely as a commodity that can be bought or sold for a market price (riba). Jews explained that they treat money as a resource to be used to achieve good results but never to be used to exploit a fellow Jew who might be in temporary difficulties (usury). Christians indicated that they have allowed the use of money as a factor of production and use the discount rate as one measure of the viability of an enterprise. A rate of interest is therefore charged to borrowers and is paid to lenders, usually at an agreed rate. Exploitation of the weak by charging exorbitant rates is also considered reprehensible.

 

In practice, the importance of financial resources in the industrial process was recognized by those of all three religions. Muslim banks provide money for enterprises and pay close attention to how clients is performing. In this way they share in the risks and rewards. Although charging interest for borrowing money is forbidden in Muslim teaching, a fee for the services of a bank or a reward from a successful partnership with a business achieves the same moral purpose-namely, the enabling of a commercial enterprise to take place for the mutual benefit of everyone concerned.

 

It was also recognized that the legal framework in which business is conducted is not the same in all countries. For instance, the duties of company directors vary and employment law, e.g., legal notice of dismissal or redundancy, is hardly ever the same in any two countries. While recognizing that national law applies to a company registered in that country (irrespective of the nationality of its owners and managers), and that it should be scrupulously followed, the laws on a particular matter may be less demanding in, say the country of the parent company. Some business practices which are covered by law in one country may be the subject of self-administered regulation or of voluntary codes of behavior in another. It follows that some subjects covered by the Declaration may already have the force of law in some countries.

 

The Interfaith Declaration was launched at St. James’s Palace, London, in May 1994. It has subsequently been widely circulated with translations into Arabic and German.

 

The Group responsible for its compilation wished to be used by business people, business organizations and those advising companies, perhaps by adopting it as the basis of their relationship with those involved in international business. It was also suggested that the topics included in the Declaration could be included in business training courses both by companies themselves and by colleges, universities and consultants who offer different types of business training throughout the world. The code reflects best practice and it is hoped that it will be seen as a useful means of addressing some of the crosscultural problems which arise in the course of international business relationships.

 

Simon Webley

 

 INTRODUCTION

 

A series of Interfaith consultations began in 1984 under the patronage of HRH Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, and HRH Crown Prince Hassan Bin Talal of Jordan. Followers of the three monotheistic faiths Christianity, Islam and Judaism took part, under the auspices of St. George’s House, Windsor and the Al Albait Foundation and the Arab Thought Forum in Amman. More recently Sir Evelyn de Rothschild has joined Their Royal Highnesses as a patron in this endeavor.

 

A group of distinguished members of the three religions convened perio- dically to deliberate on topics of common interest. Theologians, academics and prominent figures active in business and government were all involved. Conscious of and concerned about the effects of violent expressions of religious extremism not only in European and Muslim countries but throughout the world, the participants sought to highlight the importance of the shared moral, ethical and spiritual values inherent in the common Abrahamic tradition. Aware of the implicit danger of religious bigotry and the threats to the essential fabric of contemporary society, they placed a strong emphasis on the benefit of dialogue, forsaking stereotypical portrayal of each other. Constructive dialogue, difficult to conduct at the outset, developed as mutual confidence between the participants improved. A sense of purpose emerged as they recognised the need to overcome prevailing misconceptions and dispel longstanding misrepresentation. The consultations eventually culminated into consensus about a variety of topics including business ethics.

 

Recent consultations discussed an interfaith code of ethics for international business, formulated in the light of the religious traditions of the three monotheistic faiths. Discussions of the terms of the code began in 1988, and were concluded at a meeting held in October 1993 in Amman. The provisions of the guidelines reflect the ethical basis indicated in the teaching of the three religions. The Declaration has been drawn up by a group of eminent scholars, clerics, and business people from the three religions following a comprehensive review of the teachings of their respective religions with regard to ethical issues in the conduct of business. They concluded that the Declaration should be based on the shared concern for justice, mutual respect, stewardship and honesty.

 

The Declaration illustrates, in a practical way, that people of very different cultures or beliefs often have more in common than is sometimes apparent. It is hoped that the sense of the Declaration will be incorporated into Statements of Purpose or Codes of Conduct. It is offered on the understanding that it will help to facilitate expanding international economic activity, which is beneficial for harmonious international relations and prosperity.

 

Although the code does not attempt to cover all aspects of business behavior, it incorporates the best of contemporary business practice, as well as indicating the modes of good practice as enjoined by divine injunctions. It is recommended to adherents of the three faiths; and commended to leaders of international business, as well as teachers of business management, whether followers of the three monotheistic faiths or not.

 

Special thanks go to Mr. Simon Webley of the British-North American Research Association, for his work on the text.

 

I. BACKGROUND

 

A. ORIGIN AND PURPOSE OF THE DECLARATION

 

The globalization of business is now well established and growing. For instance:

  •  The volume of world trade is accelerating rapidly again.
  •  In 1994 it increased by 9.5% over 1993 and is expected to grow a further 8% in 1995. 
  •  In 1994 world merchandise trade was valued at $4090 billion. ($3,600 billion in 1963). 
  •  Cross border investment for productive purposes is expanding even faster than trade. As a result, cross cultural business relationships are multiplying. 
  •  Stocks and shares of most of the world’s largest enterprises are quoted on a variety of stock exchanges and their directors and staff come from many different countries. 

 

This exponential increase in international economic activity has, among other things, resulted in some serious differences in approach to business operations among some of the major participants.

 

To consider these differences and to see what could be done to resolve them, a group of distinguished leaders (businessmen, bankers and academics and clerics) from the three major monotheistic religions of the world (Muslim, Jewish and Christian) met 1989-94 under the auspices of HRH the Duke of Edinburgh, HRH Crown Prince Hassan of Jordan and Evelyn de Rothschild of England to see if it would be possible and useful to draw up a set of guidelines on business ethics which are applicable wherever economic activity involving adherents of their religions takes place. The group met four times and explored in some depth, the different approaches to behavioral problems arising in business relationships.

 

The participants were made aware of a range of business situations which could not be resolved solely by consulting legal texts or by applying strictly business (profit) criteria. The purpose of the resulting Declaration of International Business Ethics was to provide:

 

  •  a moral basis for international business activity 
  •  some principles of ethical practice to help business people, traders and investors identify the role they and their organisations perform in the communities in which they operate, and 
  •  guidance in resolving genuine dilemmas which arise in the course of day-to-day business. 

 

The group was conscious that the recent widespread reporting of the rhetoric and activities by extremist adherents (at least in name) of their three religions had produced in the mind of the general public the idea that only disunity and conflict characterized relationships, including business relationships, between those of different religious beliefs. The meetings of the group and the resultant Declaration indicate that whatever their particular insight of the truth may be-and it is acknowledged that there are differences-they nevertheless share a common heritage including a high degree of shared values. This particular group also shared a common ethical basis derived from one bookthe Bible-which they considered to be as relevant today as it has been in the past. The need to relate this relevance to contemporary business issues was felt to be particularly important. To do this, they sought to discover the basic values that their respective Faiths has in common which were relevant to economic activity.

 

Underlying this purpose was their shared concern that at the same time as material prosperity grew in the industrialized world, there is also emerging a value system which is considered to be detrimental to the wholesome development of human beings: selfishness and dishonesty are tending to supplant integrity and generosity. As a result, there is evidence that morality and ethical standards are declining This is exemplified by the wide reporting of dishonest and corrupt practices. Part of the problem was seen to be an ambivalence concerning what is considered right or wrong and economic relationships have not escaped its influence. The participants considered that a reiteration of ethical precepts in the form of a Declaration would make a contribution to sustaining and improving the standards of international business behavior.

 

It was acknowledged that such a code may be more difficult to apply in some countries than in others because of the different degree of influence that religion has within cultures. Both Muslims and, to a lesser extent Jews, operate within a social atmosphere that is conducive to the influence of their religious precepts being heeded, and where it is normal for moral and ethical concerns to be discussed within a religious ethos.

 

Christians in the industrialized countries generally do not enjoy this sup- port and guidance. They are dependent upon personal convictions which often have to be stated in a secular social atmosphere that has little sympathy with them. While the influence of Islamic institutions is more open and obvious, and that of Judaism still strong, the influence of Christianity is personal and subsumed.

 

In the final analysis, the application of ethical principles is a matter of personal judgement rather than rules; a code can only set standards. It follows that the Declaration (or indeed any code of ethics) is not a substitute for corporate or individual morality; it is a set of guidelines for good practice. Its authors hoped that it will contribute to maintaining high standards of business behavior as well as a better public understanding of the role of business in society.

 

B. METHOD

 

The method used in producing the Interfaith Declaration was to analysis the content of submissions by group members and a number of existing guidelines and codes which have been used by international organisations such as the International Chamber of Commerce.  Individual company codes of ethics too-were used where appropriate.  From these sources ethical issues in business can be classified under three general headings:

 

  •  The morality of the economic system in which business activity takes place. 
  •  The policies and strategies of organisations which engage in business. 
  •  The behavior of individual employees in the context of their work. 

In the Declaration, the distinction between these categories is recognised and there may indeed be other levels and sub-categories but the three selected are those where moral issues most commonly arise.

 

A second distinction which needs recognition is that while some ethical issues affect all types of industrial and commercial activity, there are others which are distinctive to a particular sector. The outstanding example is that between the provision of financial services (e.g. banking), and the manufacture and trading of products.

 

There is a third distinction. The legal framework in which business is conducted is not the same in all countries. For instance, the duties of company directors vary considerably and employment law, e.g. legal notice of dismissal or redundancy is hardly ever the same in any two countries. While recognizing that national law applies to a company registered in that country (irrespective of the nationality of its owners and managers), and that it should be scrupulously followed, the laws on the same matter may be less demanding in, say, the country of the parent company. Some areas of business practice which are covered by law in one country may be the subject of self administered regulation or of voluntary codes of behavior in another. Therefore, some subjects covered by the Declaration may, in practice, already have the force of law in some countries.

 

II. THE DECLARATION

 

A. PRINCIPLES 

 

The Declaration on International Business Ethics is built on the precepts of the three religions represented at the dialogues. Christians, Muslims and Jews have a common basis of religious; and moral teaching: they are the People of the Book. Four key concepts recur in the literature of the faiths and form the basis of any human interaction, and are applicable to business relationships. They are: justice (fairness), mutual respect (love and consideration), stewardship (trusteeship) and honesty (truthfulness). Each can be seen as a different expression of the same overall idea.

 

1. Justice

The first principle is justice which can be defined as just conduct, fairness, exercise of authority in maintenance of right. All three faiths agree that God created the world and that justice must characterize the relationship between its inhabitants. Fair dealings between each other and between believers and others is constantly reiterated in the Scriptures as are God’s justice and mercy in his dealings with humankind.

 

In the Muslim teaching it is seen as a basis of relationship. The Qur’an, Maida, v.9. states: “Stand out firmly for God, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety, and fear God.”

 

It is also a strong theme in Jewish writing. For instance, a passage on the subject in Deuteronomy 16:18-20 concludes with the statement, “Justice, and only justice, you shall follow that you may live and inherit the land which the Lord your God gives you.”

 

Jesus too suggested that some of the Jewish teachers of his day neglected the weightier matters of the Torah: Justice and mercy and faith (Matt: 23: 23), and Christians are urged by Paul to “Consider what is just” (Phil. 4: 8).

 

2. Mutual Respect (Love)

The second principle-mutual respect or love and consideration for others -is also inherent in the moral teachings of each religion. The word love has many meanings. But, as is clear from the reading of Scripture, the God of justice and mercy is also the God of love. What Scripture expresses as love is here rendered as mutual respect or reciprocal regard that exists between two individuals.

 

The statement in Leviticus 19: 18 “Love your neighbor as yourself,” which is reiterated by the Prophet Mohammed as “Love for yourself what you love for others” (), and by Jesus as “You shall love your neighbor as your self” (Matt. 22: 39), is a common ethical basis for all interpersonal relationships. The application of this has come to mean that self interest only has a place in the community in as much as it takes into account the interests of others. My neighbor in the business context can be defined as any person (individual or corporate) with whom the organisation comes into contact in the course of business life. Of paramount importance in this respect is the employee.

 

The illustration of the Good Samaritan given by Jesus to an enquiry from a Jewish lawyer as to who was his neighbor (Luke 10: 30-37), indicates that one’s neighbor is not always of the same ethnic origin or economic status as oneself. Indeed, a neighbor may be much weaker or vulnerable or a different race or religion. A business application of this would be in the case of a small company supplying a large one. The principle of love would suggest that restraint in the use of power by the strong, especially in difficult times, would be ethically correct, and in accord with the written precepts of the three religions. It follows that a large sophisticated company based in a developed country should treat a supplier or customer from a developing nation in the same way it would treat a firm with whom it does business in its home country.

 

3. Stewardship

A third principle which the three faiths have in common is that of stewardship (trusteeship) of God’s creation and all that is in it. It is a richly diverse universe: “...and it was good.” The Scriptures testify to the beauties and wonders of nature as signs of God’s goodness and providence. Humanity is set over it all with delegated responsibility, a steward charged with its care and proper use for which s/he will have to give account. The Scriptures know nothing of absolute ownership: the human is God’s trustee.

 

While this may be readily understood by an owner of a small business or an inheritor of an agricultural holding, the principle is applicable to anyone who is entrusted with the responsibility of managing scarce resources. It applies equally to individual wealth, the long-term viability of a business, and the use of renewable resources. Ownership is not seen, therefore, to be absolute. As such, businesses have an obligation to use resources for the benefit of the people in society at large as well as for its stockholders.

 

Muslims point to two Qur’anic verses on this topic: “And bestow upon them of the wealth of Allah which He has bestowed upon you” (Sura [Light] 24, 33). “And spend of that whereof He has made you trustees” (Sura [Iron] 57, 7). An authentic saying of the prophet Mohammed confirms this concept of humanity’s responsibility for its wealth. It proclaims that no man or woman will be allowed to proceed to their reward on the day of the judgement unless they first give account of their deeds, which includes how they obtained their wealth and how they used it.

 

Jews too, have encompassed the concept of stewardship in their teachings concerning responsibility in society. The patriarch David stated: “Who am I, and what is my people, that we should be able thus to offer willingly? For all things come from you, and of your own have we given you” (1 Chr. 29: 14).

 

The New Testament stresses the accountability of Christians for the way they have used resources. Jesus summed this up by stating: “From everyone to whom much is given, much will be required” (Luke 12:48).

 

This principle provides a longer term perspective for business decisions than is likely to be found where the concept of absolute ownership predominates. It also provides the basis for a proper concern for the natural environment on which business activity makes considerable demands. It implies a caring management not a selfish exploitation and is concerned with both present and future.

 

4. Honesty

The fourth principle inherent to the value system of each of the three faiths is honesty. It incorporates the concepts of truthfulness and reliability and covers all aspects of relationships in human life-thought, word and action. It is more than just accuracy, it is an attitude which is well summed up in the word “integrity.”

 

In precepts and parables, Scripture urges truth and honesty in all dealings between human beings. It is stressed that dishonesty is an abomination and bearing false witness breaches the basic laws of God. In business dealings, “true scales, true weights, true measures” are to be used. Speaking the truth is a requirement for everyone.

 

Muslims place considerable emphasis on truthfulness in business. For instance, in a Hadith it is stated: “The merchant whose words and transactions are righteous and who is a trusty man will be (resurrected) amongst the martyrs in the day of judgement” (Ibn Mace, Sunan, II/724, no. 2139 [Ticaveti]).

 

Jews too constantly stress honesty as the basis for human relationships. The book of Leviticus is explicit concerning honesty in business: “You shall have true scales, true weights, true measures” (Lev. 19: 36), and “All who act dis- honestly are an abomination to the Lord” (Dt. 26: 16), and regarding truthfulness, the Decalogue states: “You should not bear false witness” (Ex. 20: 16).

 

Christians also expect honesty and truthfulness to characterize the lives of believers. Jesus states that doing what is true is a test of obedience to God: “He who does what is true comes to the light that it may be clearly seen that his deeds have been wrought of God” (John 3: 2) and Paul urged the Ephesian Christians: “You shall speak the truth in love”(Eph. 4: 15).

 

These four principles, justice, love, stewardship and honesty form the moral basis of the Declaration that follows.

 

GUIDELINES

 

A. BUSINESS & POLITICAL ECONOMY

 

All business activity takes place within the context of a political and economic system. It is recognised that:

 

1.  Business is part of the social order. Its primary purpose is to meet human and material needs by producing and distributing goods and services in an efficient manner. How this role is carried out-the means as well as the end-is important to the whole of society.

 

2. Competition between businesses has generally been shown to be the most effective way to ensure that resources are not wasted, costs are minimized and prices fair. The State has a duty to see that markets operate effectively, competition is maintained and natural monopolies are regulated. Business will not seek to frustrate this.

 

3. All economic systems have flaws; that based on free and open markets is morally neutral and has great potential for good. Private enterprise, sometimes in partnership with the State, has the potential to make efficient and sustainable use of resources, thereby creating wealth which can be used for the benefit of everyone.

 

4. There is no basic conflict between good business practice and profit making. Profit is one measure of efficiency and is of paramount importance in the functioning of the system. It provides for the maintenance and growth of business, thus expanding employment opportunities and is the means of a rising living standard for all concerned. It also acts as an incentive to work and be enterprising. It is from the profit of companies that society can reasonably levy taxes to finance its wider needs.

 

5. Because the free market system, like any other, is open to abuse, it can be used for selfish or sectional interests, or it can be used for good. The State has an obligation to provide a framework of law in which business can operate honestly and fairly and business will obey and respect the law of the State in which it operates.

 

6. As business is a partnership of people of varying gifts they should never be considered as merely a factor of production. The terms of their employment will be consistent with the highest standards of human dignity.

 

7. The efficient use of scarce resources will be ensured by the business. Resources employed by corporations include finance (savings), technology (machinery) and land and natural renewable resources). All are important and most are scarce.

 

8. Business has a responsibility to future generations to improve the quality of goods and service, not to degrade the natural environment in which it operates and seek to enrich the lives of those who work within it. Short-term profitability should not be pursued at the expense of long term viability of the business. Neither should business operations disadvantage the wider community.

 

B. THE POLICIES OF A BUSINESS

 

Business activity involves human relationships; it is the question of balancing the reasonable interests of those involved in the process: i.e., the stakeholders, that produces moral and ethical problems. The policies of the business will therefore be based on the principles set out in the paragraphs above and in particular:

 

1. The board of directors will be responsible for seeing that the business operates strictly within the letter and spirit of the laws of nations in which it works. If these laws are rather less rigorous in some parts of the world where the business operates than in others, the higher standards will normally be applied everywhere.

 

2. The board will issue a written statement concerning the objectives, operating policies of the organisation and their application. It will set out clearly the obligations of the company towards the different stakeholders involved with a business [employees, shareholders, lenders, customers, suppliers and the community (local and national government)].

 

3. The basis of the relationship with the principal stakeholders shall be honesty and fairness, by which is meant integrity, in all relationships as will as reliability in all commitments made on behalf of the organisation.

 

4. The business shall maintain a continuing relationship with each of the groups with which it is involved. It will provide effective means to communicate information affecting the stakeholders. This relationship is based on trust.

 

5. The best practice to be adopted in dealings with six particular stakeholders can be summarized as follows:

 

a) Employees

 

Employees make a unique contribution to an organisation; it follows that in their policies, businesses shall where appropriate, take notice of trade union positions and provide:

 

i) Working conditions that are safe and healthy and conducive to high standards of work.

 

ii) Levels of remuneration that are fair and just, that recognize the employees’ contribution to the organisation and the performance of the sector of the business in which they work.

 

 

iii) A respect for the individual (whether male or female) in their beliefs, their family responsibility and their need to grow as human beings. It will provide equal opportunities in training and promotion for all members of the organisation. It will not discriminate in its policies on grounds of race, color, creed, or gender.

 

b) Providers of Finance

 

A business cannot operate without finance. There is therefore, a partnership between the provider and the user. The company borrowing money shall give to the lender:

 

i) What has been agreed to be repaid at the due dates.

 

ii) Adequate safeguards in using the resources entrusted.

 

iii) Regular information on the operations of the business and opportunities to raise with directors matters concerning their performance.

 

c) Customers

 

Without customers a business cannot survive. In selling products or services, a company shall provide for the customer:

 

i) The quality and standard of service which has been agreed.

 

ii) After-sales service commensurate with the type of product or service and the price paid. iii) Where applicable, a contract written in unambiguous terms.

 

iv) Informative and accurate information regarding the use of the product or service especially where misuse can be dangerous.

 

d) Suppliers

 

Suppliers provide a daily flow of raw materials, products and services to enable a business to operate. The relationship with suppliers is normally a long term one and must therefore be based on mutual trust. The company shall:

 

i) Undertake to pay its suppliers promptly and in accordance with agreed terms of trade.

 

ii) Not use its buying power in an unscrupulous fashion. iii) Require buyers to report offers of gifts or favors of unusual size or questionable purpose. e) Community (Local and National Government) While companies have an obligation to work within the law, they must also take into account the effects of their activities on local and national communities. In particularly they shall:

 

i) Ensure that they protect the local environment from harmful emissions from manufacturing plant, excessive noise and any practice likely to endanger humans, animals or plant life.

 

ii) Consider the social consequences of company decisions e.g. plant closures, choice of new sites or expansion of existing ones.

 

iii) Not tolerate any form of bribery, extortion or other corrupt or corrupting practices in business dealings.

 

f) Owners (shareholders)

 

The shareholders undertake the risks of ownership. The elected directors shall:

 

i) Protect the interests of shareholders.

 

ii) See that the company’s accounting statements are true and timely.

 

iii) See that shareholders are kept informed of all major happenings affecting the company.

 

C. CONDUCT OF INDIVIDUALS AT WORK

 

The following are based on best ethical practice for employees in a business. Employees of an organisation shall:

 

1. Implement the decisions of those to whom he or she is responsible which are lawful and in accordance with the company’s policies in cooperation with colleagues.

 

2. Avoid all abuse of power for personal gain, advantage or prestige and in particular refuse bribes or other inducements of any sort intended to encourage dishonesty or to break the law.

 

3. Not use any information acquired in the business for personal gain or for the benefit of relatives or outside associates.

 

4. Reveal the facts to his superiors whenever his personal business or financial interests become involved with those of the company.

 

5. Be actively concerned with the difficulties and problems of subordinates, treat them fairly and lead them effectively, assuring them a right of reasonable access and appeal to those to whom their immediate superior is responsible.

 

6. Bring to the attention of superiors the likely effects on employees of the company’s plans for the future so that such effects can be fully taken into account.

 

APPENDIX

THE USES OF THE DECLARATION

 

This Declaration is offered to business people, business organisations and those who advise companies as a basis for sound ethical business practice.

 

Relevant sectors of it can be adopted by corporations as an international standard of business ethics and be acknowledged as such in corporate Annual Reports.

 

To be effective, it needs endorsement at the highest level of business management and a means will need to be devised to make employees at all levels aware of its existence. Some ways of doing this are:

 

  •  Reproduce it as a booklet with a foreword from the Corporation’s Chair. 
  •  Include it in literature given to all new employees. 
  •  Make it a subject in all internal training courses. 
  •  See that the topics contained in the Declaration are included in business training courses offered in colleges and universities. 
  •  It also requires a method to see that its precepts are carried out.

Supplier Social Responsibility Code (2009)

Organization: 
http://www.sonyericsson.com/cws/cws/home?cc=us&lc=en
Source: 
Supplier Social Responsibility Code
http://www.sonyericsson.com/cws/download/1/573/759/1225451771/SESupplierSocialResponsibility.pdf
Date Approved: 
June 26, 2009
Code Id: 
1780

Disclaimer: Please note the codes in our collection might not necessarily be most recent versions. Please contact the individual organizations or their websites to verify if a more recent or updated code of ethics is available. CSEP does not hold copyright on any of the codes of ethics in our collection. Any permission to use the codes must be sought from the individual organizations directly.

Supplier Social Responsibility Code

 

 
1 Purpose

Sony Ericsson Mobile Communication's (SEMC) commitment to honesty and integrity are key factors in its day to day business. Strong business ethics and social responsibility enhances companies' reputations and also plays a part in creating motivational workplaces for its employees, thereby attracting the best employees in the market. It also fosters positive publicity, attracts Customers and Investors and encourages an open and trusting relationship with Suppliers and sub-Suppliers. For this reason SEMC has implemented an equivalent Corporate Social Responsibility code internally as the external one described in this directive. The SEMC Supplier Social Responsibility Code (“Code”) places expectations upon Suppliers to respect fundamental human rights and to treat their workforce fairly and with respect. Suppliers are required to behave in a socially and ethically exemplary way and to conduct business in compliance with all national laws and regulations. SEMC strives to maintain an environment of trust and respect for all its employees, Customers and Suppliers. Accordingly, SEMC requires that all Suppliers adhere to the business ethics listed in this Code.

 
 
2 Implementation
 
2.1 Communication

This document shall be open to the public and shall be communicated to all parties whose work contribute to products and/or provide services to SEMC.

All First Level SEMC Suppliers (hereafter called Suppliers) shall provide evidence and keep SEMC informed about the implementation and compliance with these business ethics. SEMC Suppliers are all suppliers with whom SEMC have direct contracts i.e. component supplier, ODM1, OEM2, consultants etc. Suppliers shall also be responsible for ensuring that it's Contractors, Suppliers and consultants comply with this Code, as well as assess their performance against it. If a Supplier is uncertain about the applicability of this Code, or requires additional support in meeting the Code requirements, those inquiries shall be directed to the primary Supplier contact within SEMC or Corporate Sustainability Office within SEMC Organization, e-mail: Sustainability@sonyericsson.com

 
 
2.2 Monitoring and Compliance

SEMC requires all Suppliers to respect and comply with this Supplier Social Responsibility Code. SEMC is dedicated to support its Suppliers during the implementation of these Code requirements. This support includes environmental and business ethics activities/assessments/audits and site visits to assess performance against the Code. Suppliers shall provide SEMC or a SEMC designated party with reasonable access to all relevant information and facilities for the purposes of assessing performance against the Code. Suppliers shall immediately report to SEMC any serious breaches of the Code, together with an agreed schedule for corrective action. Except to the extent compelled by law, all reporting of actual or potential breaches shall remain confidential between the Supplier and SEMC. Suppliers are expected to provide a corrective action plan with date of closure for any issues identified during an environmental and business ethics assessment/audit that do not meet the requirements of this Code. Where serious breaches of the Code persist or recur, SEMC will consider actions or termination of the Supplier's business relationship with SEMC. SEMC understands that there are cultural differences between regions, and will take this into consideration. However, the fundamental requirements described in this Code will be enforced.

 
 
3 Supplier Business Ethics Requirements
 
3.1 Compliance with Laws and Regulations

Each SEMC Supplier shall, in all areas of the organization, comply with all applicable laws, regulations and directives of the countries and regions in which it operates including but not limited to local, national, regional and international laws, regulations and directives. Each SEMC Supplier shall ensure that all its employees receive adequate information and training in relation to all relevant legal, regulatory and internal requirements that apply to their jobs. If, for any reason, a SEMC Supplier requirement is in violation of any applicable law, the relevant applicable law must always take precedence. When this scenario presents itself, it is the responsibility of the Supplier to immediately inform SEMC. Each SEMC Supplier shall recognize that its business activities have a direct and indirect impact on the societies in which it operates, and therefore shall endeavor to conduct its business giving due consideration to the interests of its stakeholders, including its employees, customers, suppliers, business partners, shareholders and local communities.

 
 
3.2 Basic Human Rights
 
3.2.1 Equal Employment Opportunities

There shall be equality in the workplace. There shall be no discrimination in the recruitment, salary, training, promotion, dismissal or other general administration of employees (ILO convention No. 111). No personnel shall commit acts, make advances or comments of a sexual nature, make racial or religious slurs, jokes, or otherwise conduct themselves in a hostile and disrespectful manner.

 
 
3.2.2 Fair Employment Arrangements

To the extent at-will employment is permitted by applicable local law:

All employees are entitled to a written employment contract.

Employment terms, including wages, working hours and benefits, shall at least be compliant with the legislated minimum level requirements (ILO convention No. 1).
 
Employees shall be granted their relevant statutory rights such as annual leave, sick leave and maternity/paternity leave without any form of repercussions.
 
There shall be no forced, bonded, involuntary prison or illegal labor. Employees shall be free to leave their employment after reasonable notice (ILO convention No. 29).
 
Physical abuse or discipline is prohibited. The threat of any form of abuse, including sexual, verbal, harassment or other forms of intimidation is prohibited.
 
Workers shall not be forced to make payments to their employer to enable them to gain employment.
 
There shall be no Financial and/or Corporal punishment.
 
As far as any relevant laws allow, all workers shall be free to join or not to join trade unions and similar external representative organizations for the promotion and defense of their occupational interests, and right of collective barging (ILO convention No. 87, 98 and 135).
 
 
3.2.3 Child Labor

Each SEMC Supplier shall not permit child labor (a person below the local legal minimum age for labor, depending on the country) and shall endeavor to protect every child from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to interfere with a child's education or otherwise be harmful to a child's Should there not be any local laws preventing child labor then no person younger than 153 years of age shall be permitted to perform labor. Workers may be 14years of age under the special circumstances as specified in Article 2.4 of the ILO Convention No.138 on Minimum Age and Convention No. 6 Night work of Young Persons. According to Article 1 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, persons under the age of 18 are children. SEMC encourages Suppliers to ensure persons under the age of 18 are treated with special consideration, ensuring the best interests of the child.

 
 
3.2.3.1 Apprenticeship Programs

Apprenticeship programs for children between the ages of 12 and 15 years are accepted in countries where the law permits such programs, but only under certain conditions, (ILO convention No. 33) The total numbers of hours spent on light work and school together may never exceed seven hours per day.

The employer must be able to prove that:
 
1. Work is not interfering with the child's education
 
2. Apprenticeship is limited to a few hours per day
 
3. The work is light and clearly aimed at training
 
4. The child is properly compensated
 
 
3.3 Safety Requirements
 
3.3.1 Safe and Healthy Working Conditions

The Supplier shall have a documented Health and Safety Management System and/or documented procedures for the proactive management of health and safety. Such management system should satisfy the requirements of OHSAS 18001 or other internationally recognized standards. The Supplier shall provide a safe, healthy, pollution free and productive environment in order to ensure the well-being of the employees as well as the quality of SEMC products and services (ILO convention No. 155). Adequate steps shall be taken to prevent workplace accidents and injury to employee, Customer, and Supplier health. Hazards inherent in the workplace and environment shall be eliminated.

 
 
3.3.2 Medical Care

Adequate First Aid supplies shall be available to all employees. There shall be at least one person available during all working hours is trained in basic First Aid treatment (or such greater number of persons as is appropriate under the circumstances).The employer must cover the cost of medical care for injuries that occur from work activities.

 
 
3.3.3 Facility Safety

Worker health and safety must be managed in such a way to ensure workplace injuries are eliminated. The Supplier shall ensure that:

a) Emergency Preparedness procedures including evacuation plans are communicated to all employees.

b) Evacuation plans are maintained and clearly posted throughout the facilities.

c) An adequate number of emergency exits and locations are available in all areas, are clearly displayed and are kept unobstructed at all times.

d) The fire alarms are tested regularly. Regular evacuation drills are recommended.

e) Employees receive appropriate health and safety training.

f) The temperature and noise level of the work environment are compliant with local law.

g) Workplace ventilation is adequate and incompliancy with local law

h) Lighting is sufficient for the work performed.

i) All employees have access to clean toilet facilities, drinkable water and, if applicable, sanitary facilities for food storage.

All employees have access to clean toilet facilities, drinkable water and, if applicable, sanitary facilities for food storage.
 
 
3.3.4 Chemical Safety

All chemicals must be handled in a safe manner. Information concerning chemical hazards, MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) or equivalent must be available to all employees in their language. This information includes:

  • Chemical name
  • Hazardous constituents
  • Physical data
  • Fire and explosion hazard data
  • Health hazard data
  • Reactivity data
  • Spill or leak procedures
  • Safe handling data
  • Required personal protective equipment
 
All chemical containers must be marked and labeled according to material content. Employee training on chemical safety and hazardous material handling must be performed for all employees who may come in contact with hazardous materials. Required personal protective equipment must be worn by employees engaged in hazardous material handling.
 
Required hazardous material spill clean-up materials must be available to clean potential spills or leaks.
 
 
3.3.5 Housing Conditions

Where employee housing facilities are provided, worker safety must be prioritized. Where an employer provides accommodation, it shall be clean, safe and must meet the basic needs of employees; the appropriate safety and workplace conditions described in this document shall apply to housing facilities. Each employee must be provided with one individual bed, and the living space per employee must meet the minimum legal requirement. There shall be no restriction on an employee's rights to leave the dormitory during non-working hours.

 
4 References
 
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child

International Labor Organization Conventions on Labor Standards:

Convention 1 (Hours of work)
Convention 6 (Night Work of Young Persons)
Convention 29 (Forced labor)
Convention 33, 138 (Minimum Age)
Convention 87, 98, and 135 (Freedom of Association)
Convention 111 (Discrimination)
Convention 155 (Occupational safety & health
 

 

A Guideline for Professional Conduct (1978)

http://www.aiaa.org/
Source: 
AIAA Code of Ethics
http://www.aiaa.org/content.cfm?pageid=198
Date Approved: 
February 10, 1978
Code Id: 
1756

Disclaimer: Please note the codes in our collection might not necessarily be most recent versions. Please contact the individual organizations or their websites to verify if a more recent or updated code of ethics is available. CSEP does not hold copyright on any of the codes of ethics in our collection. Any permission to use the codes must be sought from the individual organizations directly.

A Guideline for Professional Conduct

The AIAA Board of Directors at its meeting on February 10, 1978, approved an AIAA Code of Ethics; and an accompanying Code Administrator procedure, subsequently approved by the AlAA membership in the fall of 1978. The Code of Ethics and Code Administration procedures are presented below.


PRECEPT

The AlAA member to uphold and advance the honor and dignity of the aerospace profession and in keeping with high standards of ethical conduct:

I. Will be honest and impartial, and will serve with devotion his employer and the public;

II. Will strive to increase the competence and prestige of the aerospace profession;

III. Will use his knowledge and skill for the advancement of human welfare.


RELATIONS WITH THE PUBLIC

1.1 The AlAA member will have proper regard for the safety, health, and welfare of the public in the performance of his professional duties.

1.2 The member will endeavor to extend public knowledge and appreciation of aerospace science and its achievements.

1.3 The member will be dignified and modest in explaining his work and merit and will ever uphold the honor and dignity of his profession.

1.4 The member will express an opinion on a professional subject only when it is founded on adequate knowledge and honest conviction.

1.5 The member will preface any ex parte statement, criticisms, or arguments that he may issue by clearly indicating on whose behalf they are made.


RELATIONS WITH EMPLOYERS AND CLIENTS

2.1 The AIAA member will act in professional matters as a faithful agent or trustee for each employer or client.

2.2 The member will act fairly and justly toward vendors and contractors, and will not accept from vendors or contractors any commissions or allowances which represent a conflict of interest.

2.3 The member will inform his employer or client if he is financially interested in any vendor or contractor, or in any invention, machines, or apparatus, which is involved in a project or work of his employer or client. The member will not allow such interest to affect his decision regarding services which he may be called upon to perform.

2.4 The member will indicate to his employer or client the adverse consequences to be expected if his judgment is overruled.

2.5 The member will undertake only those professional assignments for which he is qualified. The member will engage or advise his employer or client to engage specialists and will cooperate with them whenever his employer's or client's interests are served best by such an arrangement.

2.6 The member will not disclose information concerning the business affairs or technical processes of any present or former employer or client without his consent.

2.7 The member will not accept compensation-financial or otherwise-from more than one party for the same service, or for other services pertaining to the same work, without the consent of all interested parties.

2.8 The member will report to his employer or client any matters within his area of expertise which the member believes represent a contravention of public law, regulation, health or safety.


RELATIONS WITH OTHER PROFESSIONALS

3.1 The AlAA member will take care that credit for professional work is given to those to whom credit is properly due.

3.2 The member will provide a prospective employee with complete information on working conditions and his proposed status of employment, and after employment will keep him informed of any changes in them.

3.3 The member will uphold the principle of appropriate and adequate compensation for those engaged in professional work, including those in subordinate capacities.

3.4 The member will endeavor to provide opportunity for the professional development and advancement of those in his employ or under his supervision.

3.5 The member will not injure maliciously the professional reputation, prospects, or practice of another professional.

3.6 The member will cooperate in advancing the aerospace profession by interchanging information and experience with other professionals and students, and by contributing to public communication media, to the efforts of engineering and scientific societies and schools.


CODE ADMINISTRATION

Establish a three-member Ethical Conduct Panel (ECP) reporting to the Board of Directors to:

  • Review all complaints, recommendations, criticism of, and questions concerning a code of ethics for all AIAA members and insure the privacy of all inquiries.
  • By unanimous vote recommend a course of action merited by the applicant.
  • Where appropriate, present the ECP recommendations to the AIAA Board of Directors for approval and implementation.
  • Report to each regular AIAA Board of Directors' meeting the disposition of all cases, including decisions not to act, received by the ECP in the period preceding each meeting.

The Ethical Conduct Panel (ECP) will consist of three AIAA members selected by the Board of Directors. A member will serve for three years. One member will be appointed each year to provide two-thirds member continuity. If a member of ECP disqualifies himself or herself the Board shall appoint a replacement.

 

Canon of Ethics (Undated)

http://www.aacei.org/
Source: 
AACE: Canon of Ethics
http://www.aacei.org/membership/about/CanonEthics.shtml
Date Approved: 
Undated
Code Id: 
1331

Disclaimer: Please note the codes in our collection might not necessarily be most recent versions. Please contact the individual organizations or their websites to verify if a more recent or updated code of ethics is available. CSEP does not hold copyright on any of the codes of ethics in our collection. Any permission to use the codes must be sought from the individual organizations directly.

Canon of Ethics

Introduction:

The AACE member, to uphold and advance the honor and dignity of Cost Engineering and the Cost Management profession and in keeping with the high standards of ethical conduct will (1) be honest and impartial and will serve employer, clients, and the public with devotion; (2) strive to increase the competence and prestige of their profession; and (3) will apply knowledge and skill to advance human welfare.


Relations with the Public:

A. Members will hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public, including that of future generations.

B. Members will endeavor to extend public knowledge and appreciation of cost engineering and cost management and its achievements, and will oppose any untrue, unsupported, or exaggerated statements regarding cost engineering and cost management.

C. Members will be dignified and modest, ever upholding the honor and dignity of their profession, and will refrain from self-laudatory advertising.

D. Members will express an opinion on a cost engineering or cost management subject only when it is founded on adequate knowledge and honest conviction.

E. On cost engineering or cost management matters, members will issue no statements, criticisms, or arguments that are inspired or paid for by an interested party or parties, unless they preface their comments by identifying themselves, by disclosing the identities of the party or parties on whose behalf they are speaking, and by revealing the existence of any pecuniary interest they may have in matters under discussion.

F. Members will approve or seal only those documents, reviewed or prepared by them, which are determined to be safe for public health and welfare in conformity with accepted cost engineering, cost management and economic standards.

G. Members whose judgment is overruled under circumstances where the safety, health, and welfare of the public are endangered shall inform their clients or employers of the possible consequences.

H. Members will work through professional societies to encourage and support others who follow these concepts.

I. Members will work only with those who follow these concepts.

J. Members shall be objective and truthful in professional reports, statements, or testimony. They shall include all relevant and pertinent information in such reports, statements, and testimony.


Relations with Employers and Clients:

A. Members will act in all matters as a faithful agent or trustee for each employer or client.

B. Members will act fairly and justly toward vendors and contractors and will not accept any commissions or allowances from vendors or contractors, directly or indirectly.

C. Members will inform their employer or client of financial interest in any potential vendor or contractor, or in any invention, machine, or apparatus that is involved in a project or work for either employer or client. Members will not allow such interest to affect any decisions regarding cost engineering or cost management services that they may be called upon to perform.

D. When, as a result of their studies, members believe a project(s) will not be successful, or if their cost engineering and cost management or economic judgment is overruled, they shall so advise their employer or client.

E. Members will undertake only those cost engineering and cost management assignments for which they are qualified. Members will engage or advise their employers or clients to engage specialists whenever their employer's or client's interests are served best by such an arrangement. Members will cooperate fully with specialists so engaged.

F. Members shall treat information coming to them in the course of their assignments as confidential and shall not use such information as a means of making personal profit if such action is adverse to the interests of their clients, their employers, or the public.

  1. Members will not disclose confidential information concerning the business affairs or technical processes of any present or former employer or client or bidder under evaluation, without consent, unless required by law.
  2. Members shall not reveal confidential information or finding of any commission or board of which they are members, unless required by law.
  3. Members shall not duplicate for others, without express permission of the client(s), designs, calculations, sketches, etc., supplied to them by clients.
  4. Members shall not use confidential information coming to them in the course of their assignments as a means of making personal profit if such action is adverse to the interests of their clients, employers, or the public.

G. Members will not accept compensation, financial or otherwise from more than one party for the same service, or for other services pertaining to the same work, without the consent of all interested parties.

H. Employed members will engage in supplementary employment or consulting practice only with the consent of their employer.

I. Members shall not use equipment, supplies, laboratory, or office facilities of their employers to carry on outside private practice without the consent of their employers.

J. Members shall not solicit a contract from a governmental body on which a principal officer or employee of their organization serves as a member.

K. The member shall act with fairness and justice to all parties when administering a construction (or other) contract.

L. Before undertaking work for others in which the member may make improvements, plans, designs, inventions, or records that may justify copyrights or patents, the member shall enter into a positive agreement regarding the rights of respective parties.

M. Members shall admit and accept their own errors when proven wrong and refrain from distorting or altering the facts to justify their decisions.

N. Members shall not attempt to attract an employee from another employer by false or misleading representations.

O. Members shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees and shall avoid conflicts of interest.

  1. Members shall avoid all known or potential conflicts of interest with their employers or clients and shall promptly inform their employers or clients of any business association, interests, or circumstances that could influence their judgment or the quality of their services.
  2. Members shall not solicit or accept gratuities, directly or indirectly, from contractors, their agents, or other parties dealing with their clients or employers in connection with work for which they are responsible.


Relations with Other Professions:

A. Members will act in all matters as a faithful agent or trustee for each employer or client.

B. Members will act fairly and justly toward vendors and contractors and will not accept any commissions or allowances from vendors or contractors, directly or indirectly.

C. Members will inform their employer or client of financial interest in any potential vendor or contractor, or in any invention, machine, or apparatus that is involved in a project or work for either employer or client. Members will not allow such interest to affect any decisions regarding cost engineering or cost management services that they may be called upon to perform.

D. When, as a result of their studies, members believe a project(s) will not be successful, or if their cost engineering and cost management or economic judgment is overruled, they shall so advise their employer or client.

E. Members will undertake only those cost engineering and cost management assignments for which they are qualified. Members will engage or advise their employers or clients to engage specialists whenever their employer's or client's interests are served best by such an arrangement. Members will cooperate fully with specialists so engaged.

F. Members shall treat information coming to them in the course of their assignments as confidential and shall not use such information as a means of making personal profit if such action is adverse to the interests of their clients, their employers, or the public.

  1. Members will not disclose confidential information concerning the business affairs or technical processes of any present or former employer or client or bidder under evaluation, without consent, unless required by law.
  2. Members shall not reveal confidential information or finding of any commission or board of which they are members, unless required by law.
  3. Members shall not duplicate for others, without express permission of the client(s), designs, calculations, sketches, etc., supplied to them by clients.
  4. Members shall not use confidential information coming to them in the course of their assignments as a means of making personal profit if such action is adverse to the interests of their clients, employers, or the public.

G. Members will not accept compensation—financial or otherwise—from more than one party for the same service, or for other services pertaining to the same work, without the consent of all interested parties.

H. Employed members will engage in supplementary employment or consulting practice only with the consent of their employer.

I. Members shall not use equipment, supplies, laboratory, or office facilities of their employers to carry on outside private practice without the consent of their employers.

J. Members shall not solicit a contract from a governmental body on which a principal officer or employee of their organization serves as a member.

K. The member shall act with fairness and justice to all parties when administering a construction (or other) contract.

L. Before undertaking work for others in which the member may make improvements, plans, designs, inventions, or records that may justify copyrights or patents, the member shall enter into a positive agreement regarding the rights of respective parties.

M. Members shall admit and accept their own errors when proven wrong and refrain from distorting or altering the facts to justify their decisions.

N. Members shall not attempt to attract an employee from another employer by false or misleading representations.

O. Members shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees and shall avoid conflicts of interest.

  1. Members shall avoid all known or potential conflicts of interest with their employers or clients and shall promptly inform their employers or clients of any business association, interests, or circumstances that could influence their judgment or the quality of their services.
  2. Members shall not solicit or accept gratuities, directly or indirectly, from contractors, their agents, or other parties dealing with their clients or employers in connection with work for which they are responsible.
 
Standards of Professional Performance:
 
A. Members should be dignified and modest in explaining their work and merit and will avoid any act tending to promote their own interests as the expense of the integrity, honor, and dignity of the profession.
 
B.Members, when serving as expert witnesses, shall express a cost engineering and cost management opinion only when it is founded upon adequate knowledge of the facts, upon a background of technical competence, and upon honest conviction.

C. Members shall continue their professional development throughout their careers and shall provide opportunities for the professional development of the cost professionals under their supervision.

  1. Members should keep current in their specialty fields by engaging in professional practice, participating in continuing education courses, reading in the technical literature, and attending professional meetings and seminars.
  2. Members should encourage their cost engineering and cost management employees to become certified at the earliest possible date.
  3. Members should encourage their cost engineering and cost management employees to attend and present papers at professional and technical society meetings.
  4. Members shall uphold the principle of mutually satisfying relationships between employers and employees with respect to terms of employment including professional grade descriptions, salary ranges, and fringe benefits.

Professional Employment Guidelines (1983)

http://portal.acs.org/
Source: 
CSEP Library
http://ethics.iit.edu/index3A.php
Date Approved: 
1983
Code Id: 
1261

Disclaimer: Please note the codes in our collection might not necessarily be the most recent versions. Please contact the individual organizations or their websites to verify if a more recent or updated code of ethics is available. CSEP does not hold copyright on any of the codes of ethics in our collection. Any permission to use the codes must be sought from the individual organizations directly.

Professional Employment Guidelines

AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
1155 SIXTEENTH ST., N.W.
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036

Copyright © 1983 American Chemical Society,
Washington, D.C.

 

FOREWORD

This third edition' of the Professional Employment Guidelines is, like its predecessors, the product of arduous debate by the Council Committee on Professional Relations. It retains those guidelines by which the actions of employers and employees alike have been judged since 1975, and it adds several that were perceived by the Committee (or called to the Committee's attention by other interested committees of the Society) as necessary responses to documented examples of unprofessional treatment and/or conduct. It also incorporates new guidelines that may prevent adversarial relations in those areas where workplace rights are not yet universally recognized. In addition, the Definition of a Chemist, approved at the spring Council meeting in 1978, is appended for reference.

 

The history of the guidelines can be traced to 1939, when the Committee on Professional Status brought the subject of professional scientists' employment rights and responsibilities to the attention of the Council in the form of a report, "Employer-Employee Legal Relationships." Employer treatment of scientists as professionals was dealt with in a 1945 Chemical & Engineering News article: "Responsibilities of Employers to Professional Employees." "The Chemist's Creed,"which was developed by the Committee on Professional Relations in 1965, provided a guide to ethics for members of the chemical profession.

 

Major terminations of professionals in the early 1970's induced the Committee to recognize the need for standards to assist employers in understanding the interests of scientists. Accordingly, minimum guidelines for employers were prepared in 1973. Subsequently, parallel standards for employees in the chemical profession were developed, and thus the first edition 2 of Professional Employment Guidelines for both employees and employers was adopted in 1975. The second edition3, in 1978, incorporated guidelines directed towards the special needs of chemists employed in academic institutions.

 

1 3rd edition-approved by the Council August 31, 1983 (Washington, D.C.) and adopted by the Board of Directors September 23, 1983.

 

2 1st edition-approved by the Council and adopted by the Board of Directors April 9, 1975.

3 2nd edition-approved by the Council March 15, 1978 (Anaheim) and adopted by the Board of Directors June 10, 1978.

The Committee on Professional Relations takes great pride in the acceptance and approval of these guidelines by the Council, the largest member-elected body in the American Chemical Society The Council may justifiably feel a sense of achievement in obtaining a consensus on the guidelines and in the Board's prompt adoption of them.

While the Committee has the prime responsibility for overseeing the implementation and observance of the Professional Employment Guidelines, all members of the Society have a duty to know and observe them, as well as to bring departures from their spirit and content to the Committee's attention.

 

The Committee also recognizes its duty to modify the guidelines as changing times and conditions dictate; however, it is neither prudent nor practical to revise them more frequently than about every five years.

 

Professional Employment Guidelines


Prepared by the Council Committee on Professional Relations
American Chemical Society

 

Preamble

The American Chemical Society seeks to enhance the productivity and economic welfare of both chemists* and the employers of chemists by the delineation of employment practices that collectively foster the mutual confidence and mutual security of employers and employed chemists and by the review of the practices of individual chemists and employers. The Society endorses the application of these Guidelines to all professional employment.


1. Terms of Employment


The Chemist

1. The prospective employee should apply only for those positions in which he or she has a sincere interest. Any interview expenses to be reimbursed by the prospective employer must be reported accurately. If more than one employer is visited on an interview trip, expenses should be prorated fairly.

2. The chemist should inform any new employer of previous employment agreements, and should exclude trade secrets or proprietary information of previous employers from new employment agreements. The chemist should not seek or accept employment on the basis of using or divulging any trade secrets or proprietary information. The chemist should disclose all of his/her inventions to the employer in a timely fashion. The chemist should convey title to all inventions to the employer if: the employer provides space, time, labor, or equipment in pursuit of the invention; or the invention involves a product or process of the employer; or the invention relates directly to the business of the employer.

3. The chemist is obligated to honor an offer of employment once accepted unless formally released after giving adequate notice of intent. All of these obligations should be made in writing.

4. The chemist should not use the funds or facilities of the current employer for the purpose of seeking new employment unless approved by the current employer.


The Employer

1. The conditions of employment should be described fully to the prospective employee. Conditions for the continuation of employment such as temporary funding or outside contracts should be specified. A written statement of these conditions should be supplied to the chemist at the time an employment offer is made. A statement of termination policy, including procedures in effect during periods of defined financial exigency, should also be made available to the candidate at the time the employment offer is made.

2. Legal obligations of the chemist to the employer should be clearly set forth in an employment agreement. The employer should not assert title to inventions that: were developed on the employee's own time; and did not involve equipment, facilities, supervision, or trade secrets of the employer; and do not relate directly to the business of the employer. The employer should transfer patent rights to the employee when the employer has no continuing interest in the invention, and has received a full disclosure of the invention and a written request for release.

3. Employment, advancement and compensation will be based on professional competence and performance without regard to sex, age, race, religion, physical handicap, or any stipulation irrelevant to the job.

4. Sound indirect compensation programs should include, among others, adequate retirement benefits, health, disability and life insurance, sick leave, and paid holidays and vacations. Employers should regularly adjust pension payments and benefits to retirees to reflect changes in the cost of living. Permanent (regular) part-time employees should be provided with adjusted indirect compensation programs that are at least proportional to the programs for full-time employees.

5. The employer is obligated to honor a written and accepted offer of a position. If unable to honor it, the employer should provide the chemist with equitable reparation.

6. The employer should recognize that at times during the chemist's employment, family or professional responsibilities may necessitate special arrangements such as the granting of personal leaves, flexible working schedules, and part-time employment. The chemist should be informed at the time of employment that these considerations are available and negotiable.

7. In the event that a company or institution is purchased by or merged with another, an employee's years of service should be calculated from the date employed by the initial company or institution.


II. Employment Environment


The Chemist

1. The chemist should perform all assignments diligently and judiciously, using his or her most creative and resourceful ideas for the benefit of the employer. The chemist should be responsive to changing corporate business and research objectives.

2. The chemist should strive to foster a stimulating and productive work atmosphere.

3. The chemist should solicit and actively participate in regular performance reviews.

4. The chemist should use all necessary safety procedures, and should inform the employer of any hazards in the working environment.

5. The chemist, mindful of his or her responsibility to the public, should strive to insure that products and processes are adequately tested, and that potential hazards are properly identified.

6. The chemist should respect and maintain the confidentiality of the employer's trade secrets and proprietary information.

7. The chemist should use the period of an enforced work stoppage occurring on the premises in a constructive and professional manner.


The Employer

1. The employer should provide physical facilities that enable the chemist to work safely and efficiently New personnel should be instructed in the proper handling of material and equipment in order to minimize risks of personal injury Continuing environmental studies should be conducted to assure that chemists are asked to function only under safe working conditions.

2. The employer should insure that normal working hours leave the chemist adequate time for personal study, rest, and recreation.

3. Management should periodically review each chemist's aptitude, professional growth, and suitability and, within the framework of job requirements, make assignments to utilize these capabilities. If an arrangement is not mutually beneficial, an appropriate reassignment should be made.

4. The employer should maintain conditions that will enable the chemist to make his or her best contributions. The employer should inform the employee of current and future corporate business and research objectives insofar as they influence the performance and career of the employee.

5. In the event that the employer requests relocation of a chemist, relocation costs should be borne by the employer.

6. The employer should strive to insure that products and processes are adequately tested, and that potential hazards are properly identified to the public.

7. Performance reviews should be made on a regular basis, at least annually. Confidential written records of such reviews should be employee-attested and maintained by both the employer and the employee. The employer has the responsibility to discuss fully and promptly with the chemist any unacceptable performance or ineptitude, with the results of this review documented. The chemist should be advised of means to meet the employer's standards and should be given reasonable time to meet those standards.

8. Judgment of the chemist's scientific performance should be rendered by a supervisor who is also a scientific peer. Additionally, the supervisor should consider the evaluation of the chemist's scientific performance by scientific peers.

9. Dual ladders of advancement for chemical supervisors and chemists should be provided and should be realistic. Financial rewards for individuals at the same level should be similar, even though responsibilities are different.

10. Managerial and technical contributions should both be considered as essential to the success of the corporate effort. The chemist should be provided with economic data and appropriate financial and business documents pertaining to his or her effort.

11. Meritorious performance should be rewarded by financial compensation. Increasing levels of skill and responsibility should be rewarded by professional advancement. The employer should establish recognition programs for employed inventors. Extraordinary contributions to patentable inventions, trade secrets, or know-how should be compensated by specific rewards commensurate with the value of the contributions to the employer.

12. The chemist should be permitted to consult with other professionals in the field so as to enhance the individual's capabilities. The interchange should be permitted with the understanding that the chemist will not reveal confidential company information in such discussions. In the event of scientific controversy, it is recognized that the chemist will act as an individual and not as a representative of the company.

13. The employer should not inhibit the movement of a chemist from one organization to another, even a competitor, through the use of such practices as covenants not to compete, and claims to subsequently conceived inventions. Competing employers should not assign a relocated chemist to projects that could compromise professional ethics through the use of trade secrets information.

14. The academic employer should observe the 1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure of the American Association of University Professors and the Association of American Colleges.

15. The employer should not penalize the chemist who performs only his or her duties during any enforced work stoppage occurring on the premises.


III. Professional Development


The Chemist

1. The chemist is responsible for maintaining technical competence and for self -development through continuing education. Additionally, the chemist should support and participate in the activities of appropriate technical societies to enhance professional growth.

2. The chemist should serve the public by using his or her specialized knowledge while participating in civic and political activities, Such participation, however, should be undertaken solely as a responsibility of the individual without involving the employer.

3. The chemist should give credit to all colleagues who contribute to technical accomplishments.


The Employer

1. The chemist should, as a matter of policy be encouraged to attend meetings and to take formal courses of study that will enable the individual to maintain scientific competence.

2. The employer should permit reasonable compensated leaves of absence for professional study in order to maintain competence or to improve knowledge in the chemist's field.

3. The chemist should be encouraged and given the opportunity to publish work in scientific journals, and to present findings at scientific meetings.

4. The chemist should be given an opportunity to participate in professional and scientific society affairs. The chemist should be allowed sufficient time consistent with the performance of regular duties to carry out responsibilities in such organizations.

5. The employer should respect the right of the chemist to participate in political and community activities.

6. The employer should encourage self-development by providing reasonable financial assistance to employees who wish to further their education that is related to present or potential company assignments, or that leads to a degree related to such assignments.


IV. Termination Conditions


The Chemist

1. The chemist who intends to terminate employment should notify the employer in writing and provide a minimum of four weeks' advance notice. The chemist should assist the employer to maintain a continuity of function.


The Employer

1. The employer should, by appropriate forward planning, provide stability of employment and avoid multiple terminations. If termination is necessitated, the provisions of these Guidelines apply to all chemists including those whose employment is contingent on maintaining contracts.

2. No chemist should be terminated for inadequate performance or for cause without documented evidence and review by two levels of management, provided such levels of management exist, above the immediate supervisor. The opinion of scientific peers should also be considered.

An academic chemist, regardless of tenure status, who is dismissed during a contract period or whose contract is not renewed at a contract anniversary should be accorded full academic due process.

3. No chemist having a minimum of 10 years' total service should be terminated except for continuing evidence of previously documented inadequate performance or for cause.

4. Any chemist who is terminated for reasons other than cause should be notified in writing and be given a minimum of four weeks' advance notice. The written termination notice should contain the specific date of termination.

For academic chemists, termination notices should be given at least 3 months in advance of the end of the contract for the first year of service, at least 6 months for the second year, and at least 12 months for the third or later years.

5. The chemist should receive severance pay consisting of two weeks' salary for each year of service, beyond the minimum of four weeks' advance notice and beyond any accrued vacation pay Additional notice in lieu of severance pay may be provided by mutual consent of both parties. The written advance notice should include status and options for insurance plans (specific dates when cost of plans should be assumed by the employee) and a detailed accounting of monies to be paid (regular pay, vacation pay, severance pay, and pay in lieu of advance notice).

6. Every effort should be made to place the individual in another position within the organization, including retraining for a new position if necessary When it is determined that such relocation is not possible, the chemist should be given assistance in finding employment elsewhere.

7. Any chemist terminated with a minimum of 10 years' total service should have fully vested pension rights with survivor benefits.

8. If the employer encourages the employee to retire early, the employer should provide an attractive and adequate income, e.g., increased pension. Any chemist who is involuntarily placed on early retirement should be treated at least as well as an employee dismissed for economic reasons, i.e., be given severance pay, advance notice, etc.

9. The employer should continue life insurance and medical care plans for a minimum of one month beyond the severance date, plus accrued vacation time, plus two weeks for each year of employee service, at the same rate of contribution as when the terminee was an employee. The employer should provide an additional 31 day grace period.

10. The employer should follow a policy of rehiring those terminated in a retrenchment before similarly qualified employees are recruited. Rehire privileges should be carefully explained to employees terminated during a retrenchment.

11. When an employer hires a chemist previously terminated by the employer, the employee's years of service should include the initial service preceding any interruption.


Definition of a Multiple Termination


A multiple termination occurs when the employment of three or more chemists or chemical engineers is terminated within a six-month period for reasons other than: 1) continuing evidence of previously documented inadequate performance, 2) completion of a contract, or 3) cause. The academic chemists or chemical engineers must be tenured or in a tenure-leading position.


Investigation of Unprofessional Conduct


The Chemist

1. The Committee on Professional Relations will investigate instances of conduct by chemists reported to be in violation of the Professional Employment Guidelines.

2. The conclusions of the committee will be communicated to the parties involved.

3. Documented instances of unethical conduct can lead to initiation of proceedings before the Council of the American Chemical Society, in accordance with Article IV, Sec. 3 of the Constitution and Bylaw 1, Sec. 7.


The Employer

1. The Committee on Professional Relations will investigate instances of conduct by employers reported to be in violation of the Professional Employment Guidelines.

2. The committee will extend assistance to chemists whom the committee has deemed to have been treated unprofessionally.

3. Documented unprofessional conduct by an employer can lead to citation before the the Council of the American Chemical Society and subsequent publication.


Definition of a Chemist*

A chemist is a professional who possesses an earned bachelor's or higher degree with a major in a chemical science from an accredited institution and who develops, applies, or communicates the principles of chemistry and exercises independent judgment and discretion in conceiving, planning, coordinating, or executing chemical projects or who has experience in so doing.

The chemical sciences deal with the composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the transformations they undergo.

This statement was formulated for those who need a definition of a chemist for legislative, judicial, or regulatory purposes. It is not related to membership eligibility in any particular scientific or professional society.

*For brevity the term "chemist" in the Guidelines refers to both chemists and chemical engineers.

 

Approved by the Council of the American Chemical Society, March 15, 1978 and endorsed by the Board of Directors on June 10, 1978.

Center for Global Ethics (1993)

http://astro.temple.edu/~dialogue/geth.htm
Source: 
A Code of Ethics on International Business for Christians, Muslims, and Jews
http://astro.temple.edu/~dialogue/Codes/cmj_codes.htm
Date Approved: 
October 1993
Code Id: 
1394

Disclaimer: Please note the codes in our collection might not necessarily be most recent versions. Please contact the individual organizations or their websites to verify if a more recent or updated code of ethics is available. CSEP does not hold copyright on any of the codes of ethics in our collection. Any permission to use the codes must be sought from the individual organizations directly.

Center for Global Ethics

International Business for Christians, Muslims and Jews - Code of Ethics

INTRODUCTION

A series of Interfaith consultations began in 1984 under the patronage of HRH Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, and HRH Crown Prince E1 Hassan Bin Talal of Jordan. Followers of the three monotheistic faiths Christianity, Islam and Judaism took part, under the auspices of St. George's House, Windsor and the Al Albait Foundation and the Arab Thought Forum in Amman. More recently Sir Evelyn de Rothschild has joined Their Royal Highnesses as a patron in this endeavour.

 

A group of distinguished members of the three religions convened periodically to deliberate on topics of common interest. Theologians, academics and prominent figures active in business and government were all involved. Conscious of and concerned about the effects of violent expressions of religious extremism not only in European and Muslim countries but throughout the world, the participants sought to highlight the importance of the shared moral, ethical and spiritual values inherent in the common Abrahamic tradition. Aware of the implicit danger of religious bigotry and the threats to the essential fabric of contemporary society, they placed a strong emphasis on the benefit of dialogue, forsaking stereotypical portrayal of each other. Constructive dialogue, difficult to conduct at the outset, developed as mutual confidence between the participants improved. A sense of purpose emerged as they recognized the need to overcome prevailing misconceptions and dispel longstanding misrepresentation. The consultations eventually culminated into consensus about a variety of topics including business ethics.

 

Recent consultations discussed an Interfaith code of ethics for international business, formulated in the light of the religious traditions of the three monotheistic faiths. Discussions of the terms of the code began in 1988, and were concluded at a meeting held in October 1993 in Amman. The provisions of the guidelines reflect the ethical basis indicated in the teaching of the three religions. The Declaration has been drawn up by a group of eminent scholars, clerics, and business people from the three religions following a comprehensive review of the teachings of their respective religions with regard to ethical issues in the conduct of business. They concluded that the Declaration should be based on the shared concern for justice, mutual respect, steward-ship and honesty.

 

The Declaration illustrates, in a practical way, that people of very different cultures or beliefs often have more in common than is sometimes apparent. It is hoped that the sense of the Declaration will be incorporated into Statements of Purpose or Codes of Conduct. It is offered on the understanding that it will help to facilitate expanding international economic activity, which is beneficial for harmonious international relations and prosperity.

Although the code does not attempt to cover all aspects of business behavior, it incorporates the best of contemporary business practice, as well as indicating the modes of good practice as enjoined by divine injunctions. It is recommended to adherents of the three faiths; and commended to leaders of international business, as well as teachers of business management; whether followers of the three monotheistic faiths or not. Special thanks go to Mr Simon Webley of the British-North American Research Association, for his work on the text.

 

I. BACKGROUND

A. ORIGIN AND PURPOSE OF THE DECLARATION

The globalization of business is well underway and growing. For instance:

  • The volume of world trade is accelerating again. In 1992 it increased by 4.5% over 1991.
  • Cross border investment for productive purposes is expanding even faster than trade. As a result, cross cultural business relationships are expanding rapidly.
  • Stocks and shares of many of the world's largest enterprises are quoted on a variety of stock exchanges and their directors and staff come from many different countries.

 

This international expansion of economic activity is revealing some serious differences in approach to business operations among some of the major participants.

 

It was these differences, and the conviction that insights of the scriptures of Christians, Muslims and Jews had an important contribution to make to their resolution, that prompted HRH the Duke of Edinburgh, HRH Crown Prince El Hassan Bin Talal of Jordan and Sir Evelyn de Rothschild to invite a group of distinguished Christians, Muslims and Jews to attempt to draw up a number of principles which might serve as guidelines for international business behavior. The group met four times over a period of a few years and explored in some depth the different approaches to behavioral problems arising in business relationships.

 

Early in their discussions the participants realized that they had more in common than they originally thought and that the issues they were addressing were timely and important. Drawing on the rich traditions and values inherent in their respective faiths, a common approach was agreed which is set out in the Declaration. Its purpose is to set out an ethical basis for international businesses. It includes some principles and guidelines for practice to help business people, traders and investors identify the role they, and their organizations perform in the communities in which they operate. It also gives guidance in resolving genuine dilemmas which arise in the course of day-to-day business.

The group was particularly pleased that it could agree to issue and endorse the Declaration as it was conscious that the wide spread reporting of the rhetoric and activities by extremist adherents (at least in name) of their three religions had produced in the mind of the general public the idea that only disunity and conflict characterized relationships, including business relation ships, between those of different religious beliefs. The meetings of the group and the resultant Declaration indicate that whatever: their particular insight of the truth may be and it is acknowledged that there are differences they nevertheless all share a common heritage with a high degree of shared values. They also share a common moral basis derived from the Scriptures, which is as relevant today as it has been in the past. The need to relate this relevance to contemporary business issues was felt to be particularly important.

The participants were also conscious that, along with the growth in material prosperity in the industrial world, there is emerging in some quarters a value system which they believe is detrimental to the wholesome development of human beings: selfishness and dishonesty are tending to supplant generosity and integrity. As a result, there is evidence that morality and ethical standards are declining in their respective societies as exemplified by the wide reporting of dishonest and corrupt practices. Part of the; problem is an ambivalence concerning what is considered right and wrong and economic relationships have not escaped this influence. It seemed to the group, therefore, that a reiteration of shared ethical precepts in the form of this Declaration would help to sustain and improve the standards of international business behavior.

 

It was realized that the application of these principles may be more difficult to apply in some countries than in others because of the different degree of influence that religion has within a given society. Both Muslims and, to a lesser extent, Jews, generally operate within a social atmosphere that is conducive to the influence of their religious precepts being heeded, and where it is normal for moral and ethical concerns to be discussed within a religious ethos.

 

Christians generally do not enjoy this type of support and guidance. They are more dependent upon personal convictions which often have to be stated in a secular social atmosphere that has little sympathy with them. While the influence of Islamic institutions is more open and obvious, and that of Judaism still strong, the influence of Christianity has come to be personal and subsumed.

 

All agreed that, in the final analysis, the application of ethical principles is a maser of personal judgment rather than rules; a code can only set standards. It follows that the Declaration (or indeed any code of ethics) is not a substitute for corporate or individual morality, it is a set of guidelines for good practice. It is hoped that it will contribute to maintaining high standards of business behavior. as well as a better public understanding of the role of business in society. Some suggestions on how it can be used are contained in an Appendix.

 

B. METHOD

It is necessary to explain something of the method that has been adopted in producing the Declaration. It draws on the experience of group members and on a number of existing guidelines and codes of conduct which have been used by international organizations such as the International Chamber of Commerce. Individual company codes of ethics, too, have been used where appropriate.

 

Ethical issues in business can be classified under three general headings:

  • The morality of the economic system in which business activity takes place.
  • The policies and strategies of organizations which engage in business.
  • The behavior. of individual employees in the context of their work.

 

In the Declaration, the distinction between these categories is recognized, and there may indeed be other levels and sub-categories, but the three selected are those where moral issues most commonly arise.

A second distinction which needs recognition is that while some ethical issues affect all types of industrial and commercial activity, there are others which are distinctive to a particular sector. The outstanding example is that of the provision of financial services (e.g. banking).

 

A third distinction must also be acknowledged. The legal frame work in which business is conducted is not the same in all countries. For instance, the duties of company directors vary considerably and employment law e.g. legal notice of dismissal or redundancy is hardly ever the same in any two countries. While recognizing that national law applies to a company registered in that country (irrespective of the nationality of its owners and managers), and that it should be scrupulously followed, the laws on the same matter may be less demanding in, say, the country of the parent company. Some areas of business practice which are covered by law in one country may be the subject of self administered regulation or of voluntary codes of behavior. in another. Therefore, some subjects covered by the Declaration I may, in practice, already have the force of law in some countries.


II. THE DECLARATION

A. PRINCIPLES

The Declaration on International Business Ethics is built on the precepts of the three religions represented at the dialogues. Christians, Muslims and Jews have a common basis of religious; and moral teaching: they are the People of the Book. Four key concepts recur in the literature of the faiths and form the basis of any human interaction. They are: justice (fairness), mutual respect (love and consideration), stewardship (trusteeship) and honesty (truthfulness).

1. Justice: The first principle is justice which can be defined as just conduct, fairness, exercise of authority in maintenance of right. All three faiths agree that God created the world and that justice must characterize the relationship between its inhabitants. Fair dealings between each other and between believers and others is constantly reiterated in the Scriptures as are God's justice and mercy in his dealings with mankind.

 

2. Mutual Respect: The second principle mutual respect or love and consideration for others is also inherent in the moral teachings of each religion. The word love has many meanings in most languages. But, as is clear from the reading of Scripture, the God of justice and mercy is also the God of love. What Scripture expresses as love is here rendered as mutual respect or reciprocal regard "love thy neighbor as thyself" that exists between two individuals. The application of this has come to mean that self interest only has a place in the community in as much as it takes into account the interests of others. My neighbor in the business context can be defined as any person (individual or corporate) with whom the organization comes into contact in the course of business life. Of paramount importance in this respect is the employee.

 

3. Stewardship: A third principle shared by all three faiths is that of stewardship (trusteeship) of God's creation and all that is in it. It is a richly diverse universe: "...and it was good". The Scriptures testify to the beauties and wonders of nature as signs of God's goodness and providence. Man is set over it all with delegated responsibility a steward charged with its care and proper use for which he will have to give account. The Scriptures know nothing of absolute ownership: man is God's trustee.

 

4. Honesty: The fourth principle inherent to the value system of each of the three faiths is honesty. It incorporates the concepts of truthfulness and reliability and covers all aspects of relation ships in human life thought, word and action. It is more than just accuracy, it is an attitude which is well summed up in the word "integrity". In precepts and parables, Scripture urges truth and honesty in all dealings between human beings. It is stressed that dishonesty is an abomination and bearing false witness breaches the basic laws of God. In business dealings, "true scales, true weights, true measures" are to be used. Speaking the truth is a requirement for everyone.

 

B. GUIDELINES

The following guidelines are classified under the three general headings referred to earlier.

 

1. Business and Political Economy

 

All business activity takes place within the context of a social, political and economic system. It is recognized that:

  1. Business is part of the social order. Its primary purpose is to meet human and material needs by producing and distributing goods and services in an efficient manner. How this role is carried out the means as well as the ends is important to the whole of society.
  2. Competition between businesses has generally been shown to be the most effective way to ensure that resources are not wasted, costs are minimized and prices fair. The State has a duty to see that markets operate effectively, competition is maintained and natural monopolies are regulated. Business will not seek to frustrate this.
  3. All economic systems have flaws; that based on free and open markets is morally neutral and has great potential for good. Private enterprise, sometimes in partnership with the State, has the potential to make efficient and sustainable use of resources, thereby creating wealth which can be used for the benefit of everyone.
  4. There is no basic conflict between good business practice and profit making. Profit is one measure of efficiency and is of paramount importance in the functioning of the system. It provides for the maintenance and growth of business, thus expanding employment opportunities, and is the means of a rising living standard for all concerned. It also acts as an incentive to work and be enterprising. It is from the profit of companies that society can reasonably levy taxes to finance its wider needs.
  5. Because the free market system, like any other, is open to abuse, it can be used for selfish or sectional interests, or it can be used for good. The State has an obligation to provide a framework of law in which business can operate honestly and fairly and business will obey and respect the law of the State a in which it operates.
  6. As business is a partnership of people of varying gifts they should never be considered as merely a factor of production. The terms of their employment will be consistent with the highest standards of human dignity.
  7. The efficient use of scarce resources will be ensured by the business. Resources employed by corporations include finance (savings), technology (machinery) and land and natural renewable resources. All are important and most are scarce.
  8. Business has a responsibility to future generations to improve the quality of goods and services, not to degrade the natural environment in which it operates, and seek to enrich the lives of those who work within it. Short-term profitability should not be pursued at the expense of long term viability of the business. Neither should business operations disadvantage the wider community.

 

2. The Policies of a Business

 

Business activity involves human relationships. It is the question of balancing the reasonable interests of those involved in the process: i.e. the stakeholders, that produces moral and ethical problems.

The policies of the business will therefore be based on the principles set out in the paragraphs above and in particular:

  1. The board of directors will be responsible for seeing that the business operates within the letter and spirit of the laws of the nations in which it works. If these laws are rather less rigorous in some parts of the world where the business operates than in others, the higher standards will normally be applied everywhere.
  2. The board will issue a written statement concerning the objectives and operating policies of the organization, and their application. It will set out clearly the obligations of the company towards the different stakeholders involved with a business [employees, shareholders, lenders, customers, suppliers and the community (local and national government)].
  3. The basis of the relationship with the principal stakeholders shall be honesty and fairness, by which is meant integrity, in all relationships, as well as reliability in all commitments made on behalf of the organization
  4. The business shall maintain a continuing relationship with each of the groups with which it is involved. It will provide effective means to communicate information affecting the stakeholders. This relationship is based on trust.
  5. The best practice to be adopted in dealings with particular stakeholders can be summarized as follows:
  • Consider the social consequences of company decisions e.g. plant closures, choice of any new sites or expansion of existing ones, and the effects on smaller businesses.
  • Not tolerate any form of bribery, extortion or other corrupt or corrupting practices in business dealings.

 

3. Owners (Shareholders)

 

The shareholders undertake the risks of ownership. The elected directors

shall:

  • Protect the interests of shareholders.
  • See that the company's accounting statements are true and timely.
  • See that shareholders are kept informed of all major happenings affecting the company.

 

4. Conduct of Individuals at Work

 

The following are based on best ethical practice for employees in a

business. Employees of an organization shall:

  1. Implement the decisions of those to whom he or she is responsible which are lawful and in accordance with the company's policies in cooperation with colleagues.
  2. Avoid all abuse of power for personal gain, advantage or prestige and in particular refuse bribes or other inducements of any sort intended to encourage dishonesty or to break the law.
  3. Not use any information acquired in the business for personal gain or for the benefit of relatives or outside associates.
  4. Reveal the facts to his superiors whenever his personal business or financial interests become involved with those of the company.
  5. Be actively concerned with the difficulties and problems of subordinates, treat them fairly and lead them effectively, assuring them a right of reasonable access and appeal to those to whom their immediate superior is responsible. Bring to the attention of superiors the likely effects on employees of the company's plans for the future so that such effects can be fully taken into account.


APPENDIX

THE USES OF THE DECLARATION

This Declaration is offered to business people, business organizations and those who advise companies as a basis for sound ethical business practice.

Relevant sectors of it can be adopted by corporations as an international standard of business ethics and be acknowledged as such in corporate Annual Reports.

To be effective, it needs endorsement at the highest level of business management and a means will need to be devised to make employees at all levels aware of its existence. Some ways of doing this are:

  • Reproduce it as a simple booklet with a foreword from the Chairman.
  • Include it in literature given to all new employees.
  • Make it a subject in all internal training courses.

See that the topics contained in the Declaration are included in business training courses offered in colleges and universities. It also requires a method of seeing that its precepts are carried out.

Professional Employment Guidelines (1988)

http://www.chemistry.org/
Source: 
CSEP Library
http://ethics.iit.edu/index3A.php
Date Approved: 
1988
Code Id: 
1111

Disclaimer: Please note the codes in our collection might not necessarily be the most recent versions. Please contact the individual organizations or their websites to verify if a more recent or updated code of ethics is available. CSEP does not hold copyright on any of the codes of ethics in our collection. Any permission to use the codes must be sought from the individual organizations directly.

Professional Employment Guidelines

Copyright, 1988
American Chemical Society
1155 Sixteenth Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036

 

Foreword

This is the fourth edition of the Professional Employment Guidelines of the American Chemical Society. Like previous editions, these Guidelines were prepared by the Council Committee on Professional Relations, approved by the Council, and adopted by the Board of Directors of the ACS.

 

The Guidelines embody a broad spectrum of recommended practices in employment for both professional scientists and their employers. They are divided into four major sections: Terms of Employment, Employment Environment, Professional Development, Termination Conditions. The ACS "Definition of a Chemist" and "The Chemist's Creed" are included for reference at the end.

 

The history of these Guidelines dates back to 1939 when the Committee on Professional Status prepared a report for the Council on employment rights and responsibilities of professional scientists, "Employer-Employee Legal Relationships." Employer treatment of scientists as professionals was dealt with in an article in Chemical & Engineering News in 1945,  "Responsibilities of Employers to Professional Employees." "The Chemists Creed" (1965) provides a guide to ethics for members of the chemical profession.

 

In the early 1970s, the Committee recognized that written standards were needed to assist employers in understanding the interests of scientists. Parallel standards were developed for employees in the chemical profession, leading to the first edition(1) of these Guidelines in 1975. The second edition(2), in 1978, incorporated sections directed to the special needs of chemists employed in academic institutions. The third edition(3), in 1983, added emphasis on professional treatment of employed chemists. In this edition, effort has been made to reorganize the earlier editions and to emphasize the ethical obligations of scientists and employers with reference to hazardous materials and the environment.

 

It is the intention of the Committee to prepare a separate set of Guidelines to deal with the relationships between graduate students and their employers.

 

As with all documents which seek to provide guidance for relationships between individuals and organizations, the Guidelines must change with changing times. The Committee undertakes to carry this out at approximately five-year intervals.

 

The American Chemical Society, as the world's largest association of professional scientists, has the opportunity

to set an example for all. It is the Committee's hope that these Guidelines truly represent a fair and equitable balance between employer and professional employee and that they will be implemented and observed as fully as possible.

 

1. First Edition:

Approved by the Council and adopted by the Board of Directors, April 19, 1975.

2. Second Edition: Approved by the Council, March 15, 1978, and adopted by the Board of Directors, June 10, 1978.

3. Third Edition: Approved by the Council, August 31, 1983, and adopted by the Board of Directors, September 23, 1983.

4. Fourth Edition:

Approved by the Council, September 28, 1988, and adopted by the Board of Directors, December 11, 1988.


Professional Employment Guidelines


Prepared by the Council Committee on Professional Relations
American Chemical Society

 

Preamble

The American Chemical Society seeks to enhance the professional security, productivity, and economic status of chemists*, and the health of institutions that employ them, by the delineation of preferred employment practices. These Guidelines recommend practices for individual chemists and their employers that will foster a more satisfactory working relationship. The Society endorses the application of these Guidelines to all professional employment.

 

I. Terms of Employment


The Chemist

C1. The prospective employee should apply only for positions in which there is a serious interest, a belief that the job qualifications are met, and a willingness to consider acceptance of an employment offer. The prospective employee should forthrightly and accurately provide all appropriate requested background information, including qualifications and interests, so that the employment candidacy may be accurately evaluated.

C2. Any interview expenses to be reimbursed by the prospective employer should be reported accurately. If more than one employer is visited on an interview trip, expenses should be prorated fairly.

C3. The chemist should inform a new employer of previous employment agreements and should exclude trade secrets or proprietary information of previous employers from new employment agreements. The chemist should not seek or accept employment on the basis of using or divulging any trade secrets or proprietary information.

C4. The chemist should disclose in a timely fashion and convey title to all inventions to the employer if: the employer provides space, time, labor, or equipment in pursuit of the invention; or the invention involves a product or process of the employer; or the invention relates directly to the business of the employer. The chemist should submit any material to be published that involves work done as an employee to the employer and where appropriate assign copyright.

C5. The chemist is obligated to honor an offer of employment which has been accepted, unless formally released after giving adequate notice of intent. All of these obligations should be made in writing.

C6. The chemist should not use the funds or facilities of a current employer for the purpose of seeking new employment without approval.


The Employer

El. Employment, compensation, and advancement should be based upon professional competence and performance, without regard to sex, race, religion, age, physical handicap, or any other factor that is not relevant to the job.

E2. An employer should accurately describe an available position with a complete and candid disclosure of the qualifications required and the employment environment.

E3. Conditions of employment should be described fully to the prospective employee. A written statement of these conditions, including a copy of the employment contract or agreement, should be supplied to the chemist at the time an employment offer is made. Special conditions for the continuation of employment, such as temporary funding or outside contracts, should be specified. A written statement of termination policy should also be made available to the candidate at the time the employment offer is made.

E4. The employer has an obligation to respond in a timely fashion to correspondence from the chemist, including acknowledgment of receipt of documents needed for proper consideration of the applicant. The employer is obligated to honor a written and accepted offer of a position. If unable to honor it, the employer should provide the chemist with equitable reparation.

E5. Legal obligations of the chemist to the employer should be set forth clearly in an employment agreement. The employer should not assert title to inventions that: were developed on the employee's own time; and did not involve equipment, facilities, supervision, or trade secrets of the employer; and do not relate directly to the business of the employer. The employer should not assert copyright to an employee's work that is performed outside the scope of the employee's duties. The employer should transfer patent rights to the employee when the employer has no continuing interest in an invention and has received a full disclosure of the invention and a written request for release.

E6. Sound indirect compensation programs should be provided to include, among other items, health, disability, and life insurance, sick leave, paid holidays and vacations, and a retirement plan. Indirect compensation plans should be fully specified in writing when an employment offer is extended.

E7. All professional employees should be vested in the employer's pension plan, including provisions for survivor benefits, after a maximum of five years of employment. The employer should devise a schedule for partial vesting for employees with less than five years' service. All vested funds should be fully portable.

E8. A retirement plan should be offered which has an element of portability and which is structured so that the employer-provided pension, combined with social security and savings by the employee, will permit continuation of the employee's pre-retirement lifestyle. The fund that supports the plan should not revert to the employer until vested employee interests have been met. Employers should regularly adjust pension payments and benefits to retirees to reflect changes in the cost of living.

E9. Regular part-time and temporary employees should be provided with adjusted indirect compensation programs that are at least proportional to the programs for full-time employees.

E10. The employer should notify employees, in writing, of the employer's policy of professional liability.

Ell. The employer should recognize that at times during the chemist's employment, family or professional responsibilities may necessitate special arrangements, such as the granting of personal leaves, flexible working schedules, and part-time employment. The chemist should be informed at the time of employment that these considerations are available and negotiable.

E12. In the event that a company or institution is purchased by or merged with another, an employee's years of service should be calculated from the date employed by the initial company or institution.


II. Employment Environment


The Chemist

C1. The chemist should perform assignments diligently, honestly, and judiciously, utilizing creative and resourceful ideas for the benefit of the employer. The chemist should be responsive to changes in the employer's business and research objectives.

C2. The chemist should strive to foster a stimulating and productive work atmosphere.

C3. The chemist should respect and maintain the confidentiality of the employer's trade secrets and proprietary information.

C4. The chemist should solicit and actively participate in regular performance reviews.

C5. The chemist should use all necessary safety procedures and should inform the employer of any hazards or unnecessary exposures to chemicals in the environment.

C6. The chemist should not use drugs, legal or illegal, in such a way as to endanger others or adversely affect professional performance in the workplace.

C7. The chemist should strive to insure that products and processes are adequately tested and that potential hazards to human health or the environment, including air emissions, water effluents, and discharges to land, are properly identified. The chemist should inform the employer of measures that might reduce environmental risks.

C8. During a period of an enforced work stoppage occurring on the premises, the chemist should perform usual professional duties, if circumstances permit.


The Employer

El. The employer should maintain conditions that will enable the chemist to make the best professional contributions.

E2. The employer should provide physical facilities that enable the chemist to work safely and efficiently. New personnel should be instructed in the proper handling of material and equipment to minimize risks of personal injury. Continuing environmental studies should be conducted to assure the health and safety of both workers and the surrounding community.

E3. The employer should assure that required working hours normally leave the chemist adequate time for study and personal responsibilities.

E4. Management should periodically review each chemist's aptitude and professional growth and, within the framework of job requirements, make assignments to utilize these capabilities. If an arrangement is not mutually beneficial, an appropriate reassignment should be made.

E5. The employer should inform the chemist, insofar as practical, of current and future organizational business and research objectives which will have an impact upon the chemist's work or career.

E6. In the event that the employer requests relocation of a chemist, all relocation costs should be the responsibility of the employer.

E7. The employer should strive to insure that products and processes are adequately tested and that potential hazards to human health or the environment, including air emissions, water effluents, and discharges to land, are properly identified to the public.

E8. Performance reviews should be made on a regular basis, at least annually. Confidential written records of such reviews should be employee-attested and maintained by both the employer and the employee. The employer has the responsibility to discuss fully and promptly with the chemist any unacceptable performance or ineptitude, and to document the results of this review. The chemist should be advised of means to meet the employer's standards and should be given reasonable time and assistance to meet those standards.

E9. The performance review should be a thorough, objective evaluation of performance, without regard to sex, race, religion, age, physical handicap, or any factor which is not relevant to the job.

E10. Judgment of the chemist's professional performance should be rendered by a supervisor who is also a professional peer. Additionally, the supervisor should consider the evaluation of the chemist's professional performance by other professional peers.

Ell. Meritorious performance should be rewarded by financial compensation. Increasing levels of skill and responsibility should be rewarded by professional advancement. The employer should establish recognition programs for employed inventors. Extraordinary contributions to patentable inventions, trade secrets, or know-how should be compensated by specific rewards commensurate with the value of the contributions to the employer.

E12. Dual ladders of advancement for chemical supervisors and chemists should be provided and should be realistic. Financial rewards for individuals at the same level should be comparable.

E13. Both managerial and technical contributions should be considered as essential to the success of the organizational effort. Appropriate economic data and financial and business documents pertinent to the chemist's technical effort should be provided.

E14. The chemist should be permitted to interact with other professionals in the field so as to enhance the individual chemist's capabilities. In the event of scientific controversy, it is recognized that the chemist should act as an individual scientist and not necessarily as a representative of the employer.

E15. The employer should not inhibit the movement of a chemist from one organization to another, even a competitor, through the use of contractual obligations not to compete, or claims to subsequently conceived inventions. Competing employers should not hire chemists for assignments to projects that could compromise professional ethics through the use of trade secrets or information.

E16. The academic employer should observe the 1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure of the American Association of University Professors and the Association of American Colleges.

E17. The employer should not require the chemist to perform involuntarily other than professional duties during any enforced work stoppage occurring on the premises.


III. Professional Development


The Chemist

C1. The chemist is responsible for maintaining technical competence and for self-development through continuing education. The chemist should support and participate in the activities of appropriate technical societies to enhance professional growth.

C2. The chemist should serve the public by using professional specialized knowledge while participating in civic and political activities. Such participation, however, should be undertaken solely as a responsibility of the individual, without involving the employer.

C3. The chemist should give proper credit to all colleagues who contribute to technical accomplishments.

C4. It is the responsibility of the chemist to obtain appropriate approvals from the employer before submitting work for publication or presenting findings at scientific meetings.


The Employer

El. The chemist should, as a matter of policy, be encouraged to attend meetings and to undertake formal courses of study that will enable the individual to maintain scientific competence.

E2. The chemist should be encouraged and given the opportunity to publish work in scientific journals and to present findings at scientific meetings.

E3. The chemist should be given an opportunity to participate in professional and scientific society affairs. The chemist should be allowed sufficient time, consistent with the performance of regular duties, to carry out responsibilities in such organizations.

E4. The employer should permit reasonable leaves of absence, preferably compensated, for professional study to maintain or improve scientific knowledge throughout a chemist's career.

E5. The employer should encourage self-development by providing reasonable financial assistance to employees who wish to further their education related to present or potential organizational assignments or to obtain an academic degree related to such assignments.

E6. The employer should respect the right of the chemist to participate as an individual in political and community activities.


IV. Termination Conditions


The Chemist

C1. The chemist who intends to terminate employment should notify the employer in writing and provide a minimum advance notice of four weeks.

C2. The terminating chemist should assist the employer to maintain a continuity of function.

C3. The terminating chemist should provide the employer with adequate records of technical work that has been done, including publications, invention disclosures, and other related documentation, and also arrange for disposition of chemicals and other materials which will no longer be required.


The Employer

El. The employer should, by appropriate planning, provide stability of employment and avoid multiple terminations.

E2. If, despite the above Guideline, an employer reorganizes operations involving chemists, every effort should be made to transfer affected chemists to other suitable positions within the organization. Appropriate additional training and education should be provided to facilitate such transfer. If no other positions are available, the chemist should be given assistance in finding employment elsewhere, including offering training and education in new areas of chemistry.

E3. If terminations are necessitated, the provisions of these Guidelines should apply to all chemists, including those whose employment is contingent on the continuation of contracts.

E4. No chemist having a minimum of 10 years' total service should be terminated except for continuing evidence of previously documented inadequate performance or for cause.

E5. No chemist should be terminated for inadequate performance or for cause without documented evidence. This evidence should be reviewed by two levels of management above the immediate supervisor, provided such levels exist. In the case of alleged inadequate performance, the opinion of appropriate professional peers should also be sought and considered.

E6. An academic chemist, regardless of tenure status, who is dismissed during a contract period or whose contract is not renewed at a contract anniversary, should be accorded full academic due process.

E7. Any chemist who is terminated for reasons other than cause should be notified in writing and be given a minimum of four weeks' advance notice. The written termination notice should contain the specific date of termination.

E8. For academic chemists, termination notices should be given at least three months in advance of the end of the contract for the first year of service, at least six months for the second year, and at least 12 months for the third or later years.

E9. The chemist should receive severance pay consisting of at least two weeks' salary for each year of service, beyond the minimum of four weeks' advance notice and beyond any accrued vacation pay. Additional notice in lieu of severance pay may be provided by mutual consent of both parties. The written advance notice should include details of the status and options for insurance plans and an itemized accounting of monies to be paid.

E10. The employer should value the experience and expertise of the older employee. If the employer seeks to encourage the employee to retire, this should be done without coercion and solely by means of offering an adequate financial incentive. A chemist who is involuntarily forced into retirement should be treated at least as well, with respect to severance pay, notice, etc., as one who has been terminated for economic reasons.

Ell. The employer should continue benefit plans, such as life and disability insurance, medical and dental care plans, for a minimum of one month beyond the termination date, plus accrued vacation time, plus two weeks for each year of employee service, at the same rate of contribution as when the terminee was an employee. The employer should provide an additional 31 grace period.

E12. The employer should follow a policy of offering to rehire those terminated in a retrenchment before similarly qualified employees are recruited.

E13. When an employer rehires a chemist, the employee's years of service and seniority that preceded the interruption should be restored for the purpose of determining service-related benefits.

E14. The employer should notify a terminated employee of rights and status with respect to pertinent patents, planned patent applications, and publications, and provide assurance that the employee's rights in these matters will be protected in the future.


Definition of Multiple Termination

A multiple termination occurs when the employment of three or more chemists or chemical engineers is terminated within a six-month period for reasons other than: 1) continuing evidence of previously documented inadequate performance; 2) completion of a contract, or 3) cause. The academic chemists or chemical engineers must be tenured or in a tenure-leading positions.


Investigation of Unprofessional Conduct


The Chemist

C1. The Committee on Professional Relations will investigate instances of conduct by chemists reported to be in violation of the Professional Employment Guidelines.

C2. The conclusions of the committee will be communicated to the parties involved.

C3. Documented instances of unethical conduct can lead to initiation of proceedings before the Council of the American Chemical Society, in accordance with Article IV, Sec. 3 of the Constitution and Bylaw 1, Sec. 7.


The Employer

El. The Committee on Professional Relations will investigate instances of conduct by employers reported to be in violation of the Professional Employment Guidelines.

E2. The committee will extend assistance to chemists whom the committee has deemed to have been treated unprofessionally.

E3. Documented unprofessional conduct by an employer can lead to citation before the Council of the American Chemical Society and subsequent publication.


Status of Chemists in Special Categories

A chemist who is in a special employment situation, such as graduate student, postdoctoral, contract, temporary, part-time, or consulting, and who fulfills the ACS "Definition of a Chemist" (below) is to be considered a professional and a "chemist" in applying these Guidelines.


Definition of a Chemist*

A chemist is a professional who possesses an earned bachelor's or higher degree with a major in a chemical science from an accredited institution and who develops, applies, or communicates the principles of chemistry and exercises independent judgment and discretion in conceiving, planning, coordinating, or executing chemical projects or who has experience in so doing.

 

The chemical sciences deal with the composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the transformation they undergo.

 

This statement was formulated for those who need a definition of a chemist for legislative, judicial, or regulatory purposes. It is not related to membership eligibility in any particular scientific or professional society.

Approved by the Council of the American Chemical Society, March 15, 1978, and endorsed by the Board of Directors on June 10, 1978.

 

The American Chemical Society's Council Committee on Professional Relations uses these Guidelines in conducting programs that include assistance to individual members experiencing professional problems and investigation of multiple terminations involving chemical professionals.

 

For questions concerning these programs or the Guidelines, contact

American Chemical Society
Office of Professional Services
1155 16th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
(202) 872-4432

 

*For brevity the term "chemist" in the Guidelines refers to both chemists and chemical engineers.

Professional Employment Guidelines (1978)

http://www.chemistry.org/
Source: 
CSEP Library
http://ethics.iit.edu/index3A.php
Date Approved: 
1978
Code Id: 
1110

Disclaimer: Please note the codes in our collection might not necessarily be the most recent versions. Please contact the individual organizations or their websites to verify if a more recent or updated code of ethics is available. CSEP does not hold copyright on any of the codes of ethics in our collection. Any permission to use the codes must be sought from the individual organizations directly.

Professional Employment Guidelines

AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
1155 SIXTEENTH ST., N.W.
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036


FOREWORD


This publication of Professional Employment Guidelines incorporates all guidelines proposed by the Committee on Professional Relations, adopted by the Council and endorsed by the Board of Directors, including actions taken at the Council meeting on March 15,1978 and by the Board of Directors at its meeting on June 10, 1978.

 

The origins of the guidelines extend back over many years, and the history of their development is a fascinating story in itself. But this document will merely note that these years bear witness to the dedication, patience, foresight, and tenacity of countless persons who contributed to the development of Professional Employment Guidelines and their adoption by the Council and endorsement by the Board. Innumerable hours have been expended by councilors and other ACS members in proposing, analyzing, deliberating, and finally voting upon these concepts and the formulations of them expressed here.

 

For those who cherish the democratic process, there can be satisfaction in the realization that Professional Employment Guidelines represent a consensus of the Council, which is the largest member-elected body in the ACS. For those who value a clear statement of rights and responsibilities for employers and for chemists, there can be a sense of achievement in the Council's acceptance and the Board's endorsement of these guidelines.

In a formal sense, the Committee on Professional Relations has prime responsibility for overseeing the implementation and observance of Professional Employment Guidelines. On this point, the committee has a proven record of public accountability to the Council and the membership. But in a true sense, all ACS members have a duty to know and observe these guidelines and to bring departures from their spirit and content to the committee's attention.

 

Professional Employment Guidelines


Prepared by the Council Committee On Professional Relations
American Chemical Society

 

Preamble

The American Chemical Society seeks to enhance the productivity and economic welfare of both chemists* and the employers of chemists by the delineation of employment practices that collectively foster the mutual confidence and mutual security of employers and employed chemists and by the review of the practices of individual chemists and employers.

 

I. Terms of Employment


The Chemist

1. The prospective employee should apply only for those positions in which he or she has a sincere interest. Any interview expenses to be reimbursed by the prospective employer must be reported accurately. If more than one employer is visited on an interview trip, expenses should be prorated fairly.

2. The chemist should inform any new employer of previous employment agreements, and should exclude trade secrets or proprietary information of previous employers from new employment agreements. The chemist should not seek or accept employment on the basis of using or divulging any trade secrets or proprietary information.

3. The chemist is obligated to honor an offer of employment once accepted unless formally released after giving adequate notice of intent. All of these obligations should be made in writing.

4. The chemist should not use the funds or facilities of the current employer for the purpose of seeking new employment unless approved by the current employer.


The Employer

1. The conditions of employment should be described fully to the prospective employee. A written statement of these conditions should be supplied to the chemist at the time an employment offer is made.

2. Legal obligations of the chemist to the employer should be clearly set forth in an employment agreement.

3. Employment, advancement and compensation shall be based, without regard to sex, age, race, religion, or political affiliation on professional competence and ability to perform assigned responsibilities, Sound indirect compensation programs should include, among others, retirement benefits, health, disability and life insurance, sick leave, and paid holidays and vacations. Permanent (regular) part-time employees should be provided with adjusted indirect compensation programs that are at least proportional to the programs for full-time employees.

4. The employer is obligated to honor a written and accepted offer of a position. If unable to honor it, the employer should provide the chemist with equitable compensation.

5. The employer should recognize that at times during the chemist's employment, family or professional responsibilities may necessitate special arrangements such as the granting of personal leaves, flexible working schedules, and part-time employment. The chemist should be informed at the time of employment that these considerations are available and negotiable.

6. A statement of termination policy should be made available to the candidate during the interviewing process.


II. Employment Environment


The Chemist

1. The chemist should engage in all assignments diligently and judiciously, employing his or her most creative and resourceful ideas.

2. The chemist should strive to foster a stimulating and productive work atmosphere.

3. The chemist should solicit and actively participate in regular performance reviews.

4. The chemist should use all necessary safety procedures, and should inform the employer of any hazards in the working environment.

5. The chemist, mindful of his or her responsibility to the public, should strive to insure that products and processes are adequately tested, and that potential hazards are properly identified.

6. The chemist should respect and maintain the confidentiality of the employer's trade secrets and proprietary information,

7. The chemist should use the period of an enforced work stoppage occurring on the premises in a constructive and professional manner.


The Employer

1. The employer should provide physical facilities that enable the chemist to work safely and efficiently, New personnel should be instructed in the proper handling of material and equipment in order to minimize risks of personal injury. Continuing environmental studies should be conducted to assure that chemists are asked to function only under safe working conditions.

2. The employer should insure that normal working hours leave the chemist adequate time for personal study, rest, and recreation.

3. Management should periodically review each chemist's aptitude, professional growth, and suitability and, within the framework of job requirements, make assignments to utilize these capabilities. If an arrangement is not beneficial, an appropriate reassignment should be made.

4. The employer should maintain conditions that will enable the chemist to make his or her best contributions.

5. The employer should strive to insure that products and processes are adequately tested, and that potential hazards are properly identified to the public.

6. Performance reviews should be made on a regular basis at least annually. Confidential written records of such reviews should be employee attested and maintained by both the employer and the employee. The employer has the responsibility to discuss fully and promptly with the chemist any unacceptable performance or ineptitude. The chemist should be advised of means to meet the employer's standards.

7. Judgment of the chemist's scientific performance should be rendered by a supervisor who is also a scientific peer. Additionally, the supervisor should consider the evaluation of the chemist's scientific performance by scientific peers.

8. Dual ladders of advancement for chemical supervisors and chemists should be provided and should be realistic. Financial rewards for individuals at the same level should be similar, even though responsibilities are different.

9. Managerial and technical contributions should both be considered as essential to the success of the corporate effort. The chemist should be provided with economic data and appropriate financial and business documents pertaining to his or her effort.

10. Meritorious performance should be rewarded by financial compensation. Increasing levels of skill and responsibility should be rewarded by professional advancement. Extraordinary contributions to patentable inventions, trade secrets or know-how should be compensated by specific rewards commensurate with the value of the contributions to the employer.

11. The chemist should be permitted to consult with other professionals in the field so as to enhance the individual's capabilities. The interchange should be permitted with the understanding that the chemist will not reveal confidential company information in such discussions. In the event of scientific controversy, it is recognized that the chemist will act as an individual and not as a representative of the company.

12. The employer should not inhibit the movement of a chemist from one organization to another, even a competitor, through the use of such practices as covenants not to compete, and claims to subsequently conceived inventions. Competing employers should not assign a relocated chemist to projects which could compromise professional ethics through the use of trade secrets information.

13. The academic employer should observe the 1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure of the American Association of University Professors and the Association of American Colleges.

14. The employer should not penalize the chemist who performs only his or her duties during any enforced work stoppage occurring on the premises.


III. Professional Development


The Chemist

1. The chemist is responsible for maintaining technical competence and for self-development through continuing education. Additionally, the chemist should support and participate in the activities of appropriate technical societies to enhance professional growth.

2. The chemist should serve the public by using his or her specialized knowledge while participating in civic and political activities. Such participation, however, should be undertaken solely as a responsibility of the individual without involving the employer.

3. The chemist should give credit to all colleagues who contribute to technical accomplishments.


The Employer

1. The chemist should, as a matter of policy, be encouraged to attend meetings and to take formal courses of study which will enable the individual to maintain scientific competence.

2. The employer should permit reasonable compensated leaves of absence for professional study in order to maintain competence or to improve knowledge in the chemist's field.

3. The chemist should be encouraged and given the opportunity to publish work in scientific journals and to present findings at scientific meetings.

4. The chemist should be given an opportunity to participate in professional and scientific society affairs. The chemist should be allowed sufficient time consistent with the performance of regular duties to carry out responsibilities in such organizations.

5. The chemist should have freedom to participate in political and community activities.


IV. Termination Conditions


The Chemist

1. The chemist who intends to terminate employment should notify the employer in writing and provide a minimum of four weeks' advance notice. The chemist should assist the employer to maintain continuity of function.


The Employer

1. The employer should by appropriate forward planning provide stability of employment and avoid multiple terminations.

2. No chemist should be terminated for inadequate performance or for cause without documented evidence and review by two levels of management, provided such levels of management exist, above the immediate supervisor. The opinion of scientific peers should also be considered.

An academic chemist regardless of tenure status who is dismissed during a contract period or whose contract is not renewed at a contract anniversary should be accorded full academic due process.

3. No chemist having a minimum of 10 years' total service should be terminated except for continuing evidence of previously documented inadequate performance or for cause.

4. Any chemist who is terminated should be notified in writing and be given a minimum of four weeks' advance notice.

For academic chemists, termination notices should be given at least 3 months in advance of the end of the contract for the first year of service, at least 6 months for the second year, and at least 12 months for the third or later years.

5. The chemist should receive severance pay consisting of two weeks' salary for each year of service, beyond the minimum of four weeks' advance notice. Additional notice in lieu of severance pay may be provided by mutual consent of both parties.

6. Every effort should be made to place the individual in another position within the organization, including retraining for a new position if necessary. When it is determined that such relocation is not possible, the chemist should be given assistance in finding employment elsewhere.

7. Any chemist terminated with a minimum of 10 years' total service should have fully vested pension rights with survivor benefits.

8. Any chemist who is involuntarily retired by an employer should be treated at least as well as an employee dismissed for economic reasons (i.e., be given severance pay, notice, vested pension privileges, etc.).

9. The employer should continue life insurance and medical care plans for a minimum of one month, plus two weeks for each year of employee service, at the same rate of contribution as when the terminee was an employee. The employee would have an additional 31 day grace period.

10. The employer should follow a policy of rehiring those terminated in a retrenchment before similarly qualified employees are recruited. Rehire privileges should be carefully explained to terminated employees.


Definition of a Multiple Termination


A multiple termination occurs when the employment of three or more chemists or chemical engineers is terminated within a six-month period for reasons other than: 1) continuing evidence of previously documented inadequate performance, 2) completion of a contract, or 3) cause. The academic chemists or chemical engineers must be tenured or in a tenure-leading position.


Investigation of Unprofessional Conduct


The Chemist

1. The Committee on Professional Relations will investigate instances of conduct by chemists reported to be in violation of the Professional Employment Guidelines.

2. The conclusions of the committee will be communicated to the parties involved.

3. Documented instances of unethical conduct can lead to initiation of proceedings before the Council of the American Chemical Society, in accordance with Article IV, Sec. 3 of the Constitution and Bylaw 1, Sec. 7.


The Employer

1. The Committee on Professional Relations will investigate instances of conduct by employers reported to be in violation of the Professional Employment Guidelines.

2. The committee will extend assistance to chemists whom the committee has deemed to have been treated unprofessionally.

3. Documented unprofessional conduct by an employer can lead to citation before the Council of the American Chemical Society and subsequent publication.

 

*For brevity the term "chemist" in the Guidelines refers to both chemists and chemical engineers.

Workplace Code of Conduct (2007)

Organization: 
http://fairlabor.org
Source: 
CSEP Library
http://ethics.iit.edu/library/ethics-print-archive
Date Approved: 
October 23, 2007
Code Id: 
919

Disclaimer: Please note the codes in our collection might not necessarily be the most recent versions. Please contact the individual organizations or their websites to verify if a more recent or updated code of ethics is available. CSEP does not hold copyright on any of the codes of ethics in our collection. Any permission to use the codes must be sought from the individual organizations directly.

Workplace Code of Conduct

Workplace Code of Conduct

There shall not be any use of forced labor, whether in the form of prison labor, indentured labor, bonded labor or otherwise.

 

Child Labor No person shall be employed at an age younger than 15 (or 14 where the law of the country of manufacture* allows) or younger than the age for completing compulsory education in the country of manufacture where such age is higher than 15.

 

Harassment or Abuse Every employee shall be treated with respect and dignity. No employee shall be subject to any physical, sexual, psychological or verbal harassment or abuse.

 

Nondiscrimination No person shall be subject to any discrimination in employment, including hiring, salary, benefits, advancement, discipline, termination or retirement, on the basis of gender, race, religion, age, disability, sexual orientation, nationality, political opinion, or social or ethnic origin.

 

Health and Safety Employers shall provide a safe and healthy working environment to prevent accidents and injury to health arising out of, linked with, or occurring in the course of work or as a result of the operation of employer facilities.

Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining Employers shall recognize and respect the right of employees to freedom of association and collective bargaining.

 

Wages and Benefits Employers recognize that wages are essential to meeting employees' basic needs. Employers shall pay employees, as a floor, at least the minimum wage required by local law or the prevailing industry wage, whichever is higher, and shall provide legally mandated benefits.

 

Hours of Work Except in extraordinary business circumstances, employees shall (i) not be required to work more than the lesser of (a) 48 hours per week and 12 hours overtime or (b) the limits on regular and overtime hours allowed by the law of the country of manufacture or, where the laws of such country do not limit the hours of work, the regular work week in such country plus 12 hours overtime and (ii) be entitled to at least one day off in every seven day period.

 

Overtime Compensation In addition to their compensation for regular hours of work, employees shall be compensated for overtime hours at such premium rate as is legally required in the country of manufacture or, in those countries where such laws do not exist, at a rate at least equal to their regular hourly compensation rate.

 

Any Company that determines to adopt the Workplace Code of Conduct shall, in addition to complying with all applicable laws of the country of manufacture, comply with and support the Workplace Code of Conduct in accordance with the attached Principles of Monitoring {click here to see the Principles of Monitoring} and shall apply the higher standard in cases of differences or conflicts. Any Company that determines to adopt the Workplace Code of Conduct also shall require its licensees and contractors and, in the case of a retailer, its suppliers to comply with applicable local laws and with this Code in accordance with the Principles of Monitoring and to apply the higher standard in cases of differences or conflicts.

 

* * *
*All references to local law throughout this Code shall include regulations implemented in accordance with applicable local law.

© 2005 Fair Labor Association. All rights reserved.
Fair Labor Association - 1505 22nd Street, NW - Washington, DC 20037

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